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Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek. Additional Notes.
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CHAPTER III.

QUOTATIONS FROM THE LXX. IN EARLY CHRISTIAN WRITINGS.

"THE quotations from the LXX. in the Greek Fathers are an almost unworked field850850Biblical Essays, p. 133.." So wrote Dr Hatch in 1889, and the remark is still true. Indeed, this field can hardly be worked with satisfactory results until the editor has gone before, or a competent collator has employed himself upon the MSS. of the author whose quotations are to be examined. The 'Apostolic Fathers' can already be used with confidence in the editions of Lightfoot and Gebhardt-Harnack; the minor Greek Apologists have been well edited in Texte und Untersuchungen, and it may be hoped that the Berlin edition of the earlier Greek Fathers851851Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte (Hinrichs, Leipzig). The volumes already published contain part of Hippolytus. and an instalment of Origen. will eventually supply the investigator with trustworthy materials for the Ante-Nicene period as a whole. But for the present the evidence of many Ante-Nicene and of nearly all later Greek Church-writers must be employed with some reserve. In this chapter we shall limit ourselves to the more representative Christian writers before Origen.

 

1. The earliest of non-canonical Christian writings, the letter addressed c. A.D. 96 by the Church of Rome to the Church of Corinth, abounds in quotations from the O.T.; and more than half of these are given substantially in the words of the LXX. with or without variants.

 

The following is a list of the exact or nearly exact quotations of the LXX. in Clem. R. ad Cor. Gen. ii. 23 (vi. 3), iv. 3 ff. (iv. 1 ff.), xii. 1 ff. (x. 3), xiii. 14 ff. (x. 4 f.), xv. 5 (x. 6), xviii. 27 (xvii. 2); Exod. ii. 14 (iv. 9); Deut. xxxiii. 8 f. (xxix. 2); Ps. ii. 7 f. (xxxvi. 4), xi. 5 f. (xv. 5), xvii. 26 f. (xlvi. 2), xviii. 2 ff. (xxvii. 7), xxi. 7 ff. (xvi. 15 f.), xxiii. 1 (liv. 3), xxx. 9 (xv. 5), xxxi. 1 f. (l. 6), 10 (xxii. 8), xxxiii. 12—20 (xxii. 1 ff.), xxxvi. 35 f. (xiv. 5), xlix. 16 ff. (xxxv. 7 ff.), l. 3 ff. (xviii. 2 ff.), lxi. 5 (xv. 3), lxxvii. 36 (xv. 4), lxxxviii. 21 (xviii. 1), cii. 4 (xxxvi. 3), cix. 1 (xxxvi. 5), cxvii. 18 (lvi. 3), 19 f. (xlviii. 2), cxxxviii. 7 f. (xxviii. 3), cxl. 5 (1vi. 5); Prov. i. 23 ff. (lvii. 3 ff.), ii. 21 f. (xiv. 4), iii. 12 (lvi. 3 f.), 34 (xxx. 2), xx. 21 (xxi. 2); Job iv. 16 ff. (xxxix. 3 ff.), v. 17 ff. (lvi. 6 ff.), xi. 2 f. (xxx. 4), xix. 26 (xxvi. 2); Sap. xii. 12 + xi. 22 (xxvii. 3); Mal. iii. 1 (xxiii. 5); Isa. i. 16 ff. (viii. 4), vi. 3 (xxxiv. 6), xiii. 22 (xxiii. 5), xxix. 13 (xv. 2), liii. 1 ff. (xvi. 3 ff.), lx. 17 (xlii. 5), lxvi. 2 (xiii. 3); Jer. ix. 23 f. (xiii. 1); Ezech. xxxiii. 11 (viii. 2); Dan. vii. 10, Th. (xxxiv. 6).

 

The variants are often of much interest, as shewing affinities to certain types of LXX. text. The following are specially worthy of notice: Ps. xxi. 7 ἐξουθένημα, אAR; xxxi. 1 f. οὗ, אBA (ag. א c.a ); xxxiii. 14 χείλη τοῦ, א c.aAR; 16 om. ὅτι, א c.aAR; xxxvi. 36 ἐξεζήτησα (H.P. 99, 183); xlix. 21 ἄνομε, אo; 22 ἁρπ. ὡς λέων, R; l. 17 τὸ στόμα . . . τὰ χείλη; lxxxviii. 21 ἐλέει, B; Prov. ii. 21 χρηστοὶ ἔσονται οἰκήτορες γῆς, ἄκακοι δὲ ὑπολειφθήσονται ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς, cf. א c.aA—a doublet wanting in B, whose reading "appears to shew the hand of an Alexandrian reviser" (Toy, cf. Lagarde); iii. 12 παιδεύει, אA; xx. 21 (27) λύχνος, a reading found in A as a doublet (φῶς . . . ἢ λύχνος); Job iv. 21 ἐτελεύτησαν (for ἐξηράνθησαν), A; v. 17 ff. is without the additions of the A text, and nearly as in B; Isa. i. 17 χήρᾳ, B, ag. B abאA, δεῦτε καὶ διελεγχθ. (διαλεχθ. Cclem), אAQ; liii. 5 ἁμαρτίας . . . ἀνομίας tr., אAQ; 6 ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν; 8 ἥκει for ἤχθη, Q mg, 62, 90 al., Syrohex. mg; 9 εὑρέθη δόλος אc.aAQ (see Lightfoot's note); τῆς πληγῆς, B (A, ἀπὸ τ. πλ.; lx. 17 ἄρχοντας] ἐπισκόπους | ἐπισκόπους] διακόνους; Ezech. xxxiii. 11 ἁμαρτωλοῦ, A (B, ἀσεβοῦς); Dan. vii. 10 ἐλειτούργουν, Th. (LXX. ἐθεράπευον)852852On Clement's quotations from the Psalms and Isaiah, see Hatch, Essays, pp. 175—9..

(a) A few readings imply correction from the Hebrew, or rather perhaps a Greek text with affinities to the translations of the second century; e.g. Ps. cxxxviii. 8 ἐὰν καταστρώσω, Ἀ. Σ. ἐὰν στρώσω, (LXX. ἐὰν καταβῶ); Isa. lxvi. 2 πρᾷον, Ἀ. (LXX. ταπεινόν). Others seem to be due to the imperfect memory of the writer, who has not verified his quotations by referring to his papyrus, e.g. Ps. lxxxviii. 21 ἐν ἐλέει αἰωμίῳ: Mal. iii. 1 ὁ ἅγιος853853The Latin version supports the MSS. of the Greek text of Clement in both cases, so that with our present knowledge we are not at liberty to assume a transcriptional error. for ἄγγελος.

(b) A large proportion of Clement's quotations are composite854854On 'composite' quotations from the LXX. see Hatch, op. cit. p. 203 ff.; sixteen passages may be thus described. Some of these consist of citations accurately given from the LXX. and strung together, with or without a formula citandi (e.g. lvi. 3—14 = Ps. cxvii. 18 + Prov. iii. 12 + Ps. cxl. 5 (φησίν) + Job v. 17—26 καὶ πάλιν λέγει)). In other cases one of the citations is correctly given, and another quoted loosely (e.g. xiv. 4 = Prov. ii. 21 f. (A) + Ps. xxxvi. 38, confused with 21 b). But more commonly in Clement's conflate quotations, texts are fused together without regard to verbal accuracy; cf. e.g. xxvi. 20 λέγει γάρ που Καὶ ἐξαναστήσεις με καὶ ἐξομολογήσομαί σοι· καὶ ἐκοιμήθη καὶ ὑπνώσα· ἐξηγέρθην, ὅτι σὺ μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ εἶ, where fragments of Pss. xxvii. 7, iii. 5, xxii. 4 are blended into an arabesque. Except in this class of quotations Clement is not often guilty of citing loosely; see however xx. 7 (Job xxxviii. 11), xxviii. 3 (Ps. cxxxviii. 7), xxxii. 3 (Gen. xv. 5), xlii. 5 (Isa. lx. 17).

(c) Special interest attaches to Clement's quotations of passages which are also quoted in the N.T. The following are the most instructive instances: (1) Gen. xii. 1 = Acts vii. 3 = Clem. x. 3: Clem. reads ἄπελθε for ἔξελθε (LXX. and Acts), but rejects καὶ δεῦρο with AD against Acts and cod. E. (2) Exod. ii. 14 = Acts vii. 27 = Clem. iv. 11: Clem. reads κριτήν for ἄρχοντα—"perhaps from confusion with Lc. xii. 14" (Lightfoot). (3) Jer. ix. 23 f. (1 Regn. ii. 10) = 1 Cor. i. 31, (2 Cor. x. 17) = Clem. xiii. 1; here the relation of Clement to the Biblical texts is best shewn by juxtaposition:

 

Jer. l.c. 1 Regn. l.c.855855Cf. p. 245. Clem. l.c.
μὴ καυχάσθω ὁ σοφὸς ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ αὐτοῦ, καὶ μὴ καυχάσθω ὁ ἰσχυρὸς ἐν τῇ ἰσχύι αὐτοῦ, καὶ μὴ καυχάσθω ὁ πλούσιος ἐν τῷ πλούτῳ αὐτοῦ· ἀλλ᾿ ἢ ἐν τούτῳ καυχάσθω ὁ καυχώμενος, συνίειν καὶ γινώσκειν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος ὁ ποιῶν ἔλεος καὶ κρίμα καὶ δικαιοσύνην ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. μὴ καυχάσθω ὁ φρόνιμος ἐν τῇ φρονήσει αὐτοῦ, καὶ μὴ καυχάσθω ὁ δυνατὸς ἐν τῇ δυνάμει αὐτοῦ, καὶ μὴ καυχάσθω ὁ πλούσιος ἐν τῷ πλούτῳ αὐτοῦ· ἀλλ᾿ ἢ ἐν τούτῳ καυχάσθω ὁ καυχώμενος, συνίειν καὶ γινώσκειν τὸν κύριον, καὶ ποιεῖν κρίμα καὶ δικαιοσύνην ἐν μέσῳ τῆς γῆς. μὴ καυχάσθω ὁ σοφὸς ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ αὐτοῦ, υηδὲ ὁ ἰσχυρὸς ἐν τῇ ἰσχύι αὐτοῦ, υηδὲ ὁ πλούσιος ἐν τῷ πλούτῳ αὐτοῦ· ἀλλ᾿ ἢ ὁ καυχώμενος ἐν Κυρίῳ καυχάσθω8568561 Cor. i. 31, 2 Cor. x. 17: see Lightfoot's note ad loc., τοῦ ἐκζητεῖν αὐτὸν καὶ ποιεῖν κρίμα καὶ δικαιοσύνην.

 

(4) Ps. xxi. 9 = Matt. xxvii. 43 = Clem. xvi. 15; Clem. agrees with LXX., Mt. substitutes πέποιθεν for ἤλπισεν, τὸν θεόν for Κύριον, and εἰ for ὅτι. (5) Ps. xxxiii. 12 ff. = 1 Pet. iii. 10 ff. = Clem. xxii. 1 ff.; Clem. agrees with LXX. against St Peter, who changes the construction (ὁ θέλων . . . παυσάτω κτλ.). (6) Ps. cix. 1 = Mt. xxii. 44 (Mc., Lc.), Acts ii. 34 f., Heb. i. 13 = Clem. xxxvi. 5: Clem. reads ὑποπόδιον with Lc., Acts, Hebr., against ὑποκάτω Mt., Mc. (BD). (7) Prov. iii. 12 = Heb. xii. 6 = Clem. lvi. 4: see above, p. 402. (8) Prov. iii. 34 = Jas. iv. 6, 1 Pet. v. 5 = Clem. xxx. 2: Θεός (ὁ θ. Jas., Pet.) against Κύριος LXX.; M.T. הוּא, but with reference to יְהוָֹה in v. 33. (9) Isa. xxix. 13857857See Hatch, op. cit., p. 177f. = Mt. xv. 8, Mc. vii. 6 = Clem. xv. 1: again the passages must be printed in full:

 

Isa. l.c. Mt., Mc. ll.cc. Clem. l.c.

ἐγγίζει μοι ὁ λαὸς οὗτος ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐν τοῖς χείλεσιν αὐτῶν τιμῶσίν με, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπ᾿ ἐμοῦ.

om ἐν τῷ στόμ. αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν אAQ.

ὁ λαὸς οὗτος (οὗτος ὁ λαὸς Mc.) τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμᾷ, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπ᾿ ἐμοῦ.

ἀπέχει] Mc. ἀφέστηκεν D ἄπεστιν L 2 pe

Οὗτος ὁ λαὸς τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμᾷ, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἄπεστιν ἀπ᾿ ἐμοῦ.

τοῖς χείλεσιν] τῷ στοματι C clem.

ἄπεστιν] ἀπέχει C clem.

 

Through constant citation, the context has taken more than one type; Clement's is close to that of the Evangelists, but has not been borrowed from them in their present form, as ἄπεστιν shews. (10) Isa. liii. 1—12 = Clem. xvi. 3—14; cf. Jo. xii. 38 (Rom. x. 16), Mt. viii. 17, Acts viii. 32 f., 1 Pet. ii. 22, Mc. xv. 28.

The general result of this examination is to shew (a) that Clement's text of the LXX. inclines in places to that which appears in the N.T., and yet presents sufficient evidence of independence; (b) that as between the texts of the LXX. represented by B and A, while often supporting A, it is less constantly opposed to B than is the New Testament; and (c) that it displays an occasional tendency to agree with Theodotion and even with Aquila against the LXX. It seems in fact to be a more mixed text than that which was in the hands of the Palestinian writers of the N.T. These conclusions harmonise on the whole with what we know of the circumstances under which Clement wrote. The early Roman Church was largely composed of Greek-speaking Jews, the freedmen of Roman families; and Clement himself, as Lightfoot has suggested858858Clement of Rome, p. 61. Dr Nestle (Z. f. die NTliche Wissenschaft, i. 2) points out the Semitic style which reveals itself in Clement, e.g. v. 6 ἐπτάκις, xii. 5 γινώσκουσα γινώσκω.. , was probably of Jewish descent and a freedman or the son of a freedman of Flavius Clemens, the cousin of Domitian. Under these circumstances it was natural that the text of Clement's copies of Old Testament books, while derived from Palestinian archetypes, should contain readings brought to the capital by Jewish-Greek visitors from other lands.

 

2. Whatever the history of the so-called Second Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, whether it is of Roman or of Corinthian origin, like the genuine Epistle it makes extensive use of the Greek Old Testament. The following quotations occur: Gen. i. 27 (xiv. 2); Mal. iv. 1 (xvi. 3); Isa. xxix. 13 (iii. 5), xxxiv. 4 (xvi. 3), lii. 5 (xiii. 2), liv. 1 (ii. 1), lviii. 9 (xv. 3), lxvi. 18 (xvii. 4 f.), 24 (vii. 6, xvii. 24); Jer. vii. 11 (xiv. 1), Ezech. xiv. 14, 18, 20 (vi. 8). The last of these passages is cited very freely or rather summarised, although introduced by the words λέγει ἡ γραφὴ ἐν τῷ Ἐζελοήλ.. The writer follows Clement in the form of several of his quotations (iii. 5 = Clem. 1 Cor. xv. 2, xiv. 2 = Clem. 1 Cor. xxxiii. 5; in xiii. 2 he quotes Isa. lii. 5 as it is quoted by Polycarp (see below)).

 

3. Another second century document, indisputably Roman, the Shepherd of Hermas, contains no quotation from the LXX. But Ps. ciii. 15 LXX. has supplied the writer with a phrase in Mand. xii. 3. 4, and Vis. iv. 2. 4 supplies evidence that he knew and read a version of Daniel which was akin to Theodotion's. The passage runs: ὁ κύριος ἀπέστειλεν τὸν ἄγγελον αὐτοῦ τὸν ἐπὶ τῶν θηρίων ὄντα, οὗ τὸ ὄνομά ἐστιν †Σεγρί†859859The acute conjecture of Dr J. Rendel Harris, who saw that the name, which appears in the MS. as Θεγρί or the like, must be an attempt to reproduce the verb סגר (Dan. l. c.)., καὶ ἐνέφραξεν τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ ἵνα μή σε λυμάνῃ. Compare Dan. vi. 22 (23) Th., ὁ θεός μου ἀπέστειλεν τὸν ἄγγελον αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐνέφραξεν τὰ στόματα τῶν λεόντων, (LXX.. σέσωκέ με ὁ θεὸς ἀπὸ τῶν λεόντων) καὶ οὐκ ἐλυμήναντό με860860See above, p. 47, n. 4..

 

4. The Old Testament is quoted in the Epistle of Barnabas even more profusely than in the Epistle of Clement, but with less precision. The writer is fairly exact in well known contexts belonging to the Psalter or the Book of Isaiah861861See Hatch, Essays, p. 180 ff., but elsewhere he appears to trust to memory, and not to concern himself greatly about the words of his author. Even when preceded by a formula citandi his citations often wander far from the LXX., although they are clearly based upon it; e.g. Exod. xxxiii. 1—3 is quoted in Barn. vi. 8 after this manner: τί λέγει ὁ ἄλλος προφήτης Μωυσῆς αὐτοῖς; Ἰδοὺ τάδε λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεός Εἰσέλθατε εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν ἀγαθήν, ἣν ὤμοσεν Κύριος τῷ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακώβ, καὶ κατακληρονομήσατε αὐτήν, γῆν ῥεόυσαν γάλα καὶ μέλι. Similar liberties are taken even when which he is quoting: x. 2 Μωυσῆς . . . λέγει αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ Δευτερονομίῳ Καὶ διαθήσομαι πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον τὰ δικαιώματά μου—a sentence which, though it has all the notes of a strict quotation, proves to be a mere summary of Deut. iv. 1—23.

 

The following analysis of the quotations in Barnabas may be found useful. (a) Exact or nearly exact: Gen. i. 28 (Barn. vi. 12), Exod. xx. 14. (xix. 4), Deut. x. 16 (ix. 5), Ps. i. 1, 3—6 (x. 1, xi. 6 f.), xvii. 45 (ix. 1), xxi. 17, 19 (vi. 6), cix. 1 (xii. 10), cxvii. 12, 22 (vi. 4, 6), Prov. i. 17 (v. 4), Isa. i. 2, 10 ff. (ii. 5, ix. 3, xv. 8), iii. 9f. (vi. 7), v. 21 (iv. 11), xxviii. 16 (vi. 2 f.), xxxiii. 13 (ix. 1), 16 (xi. 4 f.), xl. 12 (xvi. 2), xlii. 6 ff. (xiv. 7), xlv. 2 f. (xi. 4), x1ix. 6 f. (xiv. 8), liii. 5, 7 (v. 2), lxi. 1 f. (xiv. 9), lxvi. 1 f. (xvi. 2). (b) Partly exact, partly free: Gen. xxv. 21 ff. (xiii. 2), xlviii. 9—11, 14 ff. (xiii. 4 f.), Isa. xxviii. 16 (vi. 2), lviii. 4 ff. (iii. 1 f.), Jer. ii. 12 f. (xi. 2). (c) Free: Gen. i. 26 (vi. 12), 28 (vi. 18), Lev. xxiii. 29 (vii. 3), Deut. ix. 12 (iv. 8), x. 16 (ix. 5), Ps. xxi. 21, cxviii. 120, xxi. 17 (v. 13), Zech. xiii. 7 (v. 12), xvi. 1 f. (xi. 3), xl. 3 (ix. 3), Isa. l. 6 ff. (v. 14, vi. 1), lxv. 2 (xii. 4), Jer. iv. 3 (ix. 5), vii. 2 (ix. 2), ix. 26 (ix. 5), Ezech. xi. 19, xxxvi. 26 (vi. 14). (d) Free, with fusion: Gen. xvii. 23 + xiv. 14 (ix. 8), Exod. xx. 8 + Ps. xxiii. 4 (xv. 1), Exod. xxxii. 7 + Deut. ix. 12 (iv. 8), xxxiv. 28 + xxxi. 18 (iv. 7), Ps. xli. 3 + xxi. 23 (vi. 15), l. 19 + apocryphon (ii. 10), Jer. vii. 22 f. + Zech. vii. 10, viii. 17 (ii. 7 f.). (e) Free summary: Lev. xi., Deut. xiv. (x. 1), Deut. iv. 10 ff. (x. 2), Ezech. xlvii. (xi. 10). (f) Very loose citation: Gen. ii. 2 (xv. 3), xvii. 5 (xiii. 6), Exod. xvii. 14 (xii. 9), xxiv. 18 + xxxi. 18 (xiv. 2), xxxiii. 1 ff. (vi. 8), Lev. xvi. 7 ff. (vii. 6), Deut. xxvii. 15 (xii. 6), Ps. xxxiii. 13 (ix. 2), Sir. iv. 31 (xix. 9) Isa. xlix. 17 (xvi. 3), Dan. vii. 7 f., 24 (iv. 4), ix. 24 (xvi. 6).

 

As the Epistle of Barnabas is not improbably a relic of the earliest Alexandrian Christianity, it is important to interrogate its witness to the text of the LXX. This can best be done, as we have seen, by examining its quotations from the Psalms and Isaiah.

 

Ps. i. 1 ἐπὶ καθέδραν, Bא (ag. ἐ. καθέδρᾳ AR), 5 οἱ ἀσεβεῖς, ἁμαρτωλοὶ, B (ag. ἀσεβεῖς, οἱ ἁμ., A). xvii. 45 ὑπήκουσαν, א | μου, א c.a RU (ag. μοι 1º BאA). xxi. 17 περιέσχεν, H.-P. 81, 206. cix. 1 Κύριος, R | ὑποπόδιον (ag. ὑποκάτω, Mc. xii. 36, BD). Isa. iii. 9 ὅτι, AΓ; v. 21 ἑαυτῶν, AQ; xxviii. 16 ἐμβαλῶ, אAQ; xlii. 7 καὶ ἐξαγαγεῖν | δεδεμένους ] πεπεδημένους (as Justin, Dial. 26, 65, 122). x1ix. 6 τέθεικα, אAQ (ag. δέδωκα BQ mg), 7 λυτρωσάμενος (for ῥυσάμενος); liii. 5 ἀνομίας, ἁμαρτίας, אAQ, 7 τοῦ κείροντος αὐτὸν, א c.a AQ; lviii. 5 λέγει Κύριος, Q, 6 ἰδοὺ αὕτη ἡ νηστεία ἥν; 1xi. i ταπεινοῖς, א; lxvi. 1 ἡ δὲ γῆ, אAQ | (for καὶ 2º), אA.

 

The leaning in Isaiah towards the text of Q especially when found in company with A or אA, is noteworthy, and it is worth mentioning that in Zech. xiii. 7, where the text of Barnabas does not seem to have been influenced by the Gospels, it agrees with A in adding τῆς ποίμνης. Occasionally the text used by Barnabas seems to have been revised from the Heb.; e.g. in Jer. ii. 12 ἐξέστη, ἔφριξεν become ἔκστηθι, φριξάτω in accordance with M.T.; in Gen. ii. 2 Barnabas has with M.T. ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἐβδόμῃ where the LXX. read ἐ. τ. ἡ. τῇ ἕκτῃ862862For further details see Hatch, op. cit. p. 180 ff..

 

5. The Asiatic Christian writers of the second century, Ignatius of Antioch and Polycarp of Smyrna, afford a striking contrast to Clement of Rome and Barnabas of Alexandria, in the rarity of their appeals to the Old Testament. (a) The genuine Epistles of Ignatius quote it only twice with a formula citandi (Prov. iii. 34 = Eph. v. 3, xviii. 17 = Magn. xii. 1); two or three allusions (Ps. xxxii. 9 = Eph. xv. 1, Isa. v. 26 = Smyrn, i. 2, lii. 5 = Trall. viii. 2) complete the instances of a direct use of the LXX. by this writer. When he quotes or alludes, he is fairly close to the LXX., unless we may except the last instance, where δἰ ὑμᾶς διὰ παντὸς τὸ ὄνομά μου βλασφημεῖται ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν appears to be changed into οὐαὶ δἰ οὗ ἐπὶ ματαιότητι τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐπί τινων βλασφημεῖται—a form which occurs also in Pseudo-Clement (2 Cor. xiii. 2) and Polycarp (Phil. x. 3)863863On this quotation, however, see Nestle in Exp. Times, ix., p. 14 f.. (b) Polycarp is no less sparing in his references to the O. T. than Ignatius. He quotes only Isa. lii. 5864864On this quotation, however, see Nestle in Exp. Times, ix., p. 14 f. (x. 3), Tob. iv. 10 = xii. 9 (x. 2), Ps. iv. 5 (xii. 1)—the last-named passage perhaps indirectly, from Eph. iv. 26—and Prov. iii. 4 (vi. 1). In Phil. vi. 1 there is an allusion to Ezech. xxxiv. 4, from which it may be gathered that Polycarp read there ἐπιστρέψατε, with cod. A.

 

6. Irenaeus may be taken next, for though he belonged to the next generation and his literary activity was connected with the West, his copies of the Old Testament writings were doubtless of Asiatic provenance. His method of quotation however differs widely from that of the earlier writers. He is a theologian and a controversialist, and he quotes the Scriptures to refute an antagonist or to support the traditional faith. Accordingly his citations are, with few exceptions, either exact extracts, or but slightly abridged and adapted, and he is almost wholly free from the habit of loose paraphrase. How copiously he cites, especially in Adv. haereses iii. iv., will appear from the following list865865The chapters and sections are those of Stieren..

 

Gen. i. 3 (iv. 32. 1), 5 (v. 23. 2), 26 (iii. 23. 2, iv. 20. 1, v. 1. 3); ii. 1 f. (v. 28. 3), 5 (iii. 21. 10), 7 (ii. 34. 4, iv. 20. 1, v. 7. 1, v. 15. 2), 8 (iv. 5. 1), 16 f. (v. 23. 1), 23 (iii. 22. 4); iii. 1 ff. (v. 23. 1), 8 (v. 17. 1), 9 (v. 15. 4), 13 (iii 23. 5), 14 (iii. 23. 3), 15 (iv. 40. 3, v. 21. 1), 19 (v. 16. 1); iv. 7 (iv. 18. 3), 9 (iii. 23. 4), 10 (v. 14. 1); ix. 5 f. (v. 14. 1); xiii. 14 f., 27 (v. 32. 2); xiv. 22 (iv. 5. 5); xv. 18 (v. 32. 2); xvii. 9 ff. (iv. 16. 1); xix. 24 (iii. 6. 1), 31 ff. (iv. 31. 1); xxvii. 27 ff. (v. 33. 3); xlix. 10 ff. (iv. 10. 2), 18 (iii. 10. 3). Exod. i. 13 f. (iv. 30. 2); iii. 7 f. (iv. 7. 4), 8, 14 (iii. 6. 2), 19 (iv. 29. 2); xiii. 2 (i. 3. 4); xx. 3, 5 (i. 29. 4), 12 (iv. 9. 3); xxiii. 20 (iv. 20. 5): xxv. 40 (iv. 14. 3); xxvi. 16 (ii. 24. 3); xxxi. 13 (iv. 16. 1); xxxiii. 2 f. (iv. 15. 1), 20 (i. 19. 1), 21 ff. (iv. 20. 9); xxxiv. 6 f. (iv. 20. 8). Num. xvi. 15 (iv. 26. 4); xviii. 20 (iv. 8. 3); xxiv. 17 (iii. 9. 2). Deut. iv. 14 (iv. 16. 5), 19 (iii. 6. 5); v. 2 f. (iv. 16. 2), 8 (iii. 6. 5), 22 (iv. 15. 1, 4); vi. 4 ff. (iv. 2. 2, v. 22. 1); viii. 3 (iv. 16. 3); x. 12 (iv. 16. 4), 16 (iv. 16. 1); xvi. 5 f. (iv. 10. 1), 16 (iv. 18. 1); xviii. 1 (iv. 8. 3); xxviii. 66 (iv. 10. 2, v. 18. 3); xxx. 19 f. (iv. 16. 4); xxxii. 1 (iv. 2. 1), 4 (iii. 18. 7), 6 (iv. 10. 2; 31. 2), 8 f. (iii. 12. 9); xxxiii. 9 (iv. 8. 3). 1 Regn. xii. 2 f. (iv. 26. 4); xv. 22 (iv. 17. 1). 2 Regn. xi. 27, xii. 1 ff. (iv. 27. 1). 3 Regn. viii. 27 (iv. 27. 1); xi. 1 ff. (iv. 27. 1); xviii. 21, 24, 36 (iii. 6. 3); xix. 11 f. (iv. 20. 10). Ps. ii. 8 (iv. 21. 3); iii. 6 (iv. 31. 1); vii. 11 (iii. 10. 4); viii. 3 (i. 14. 8); xiii. 3 (i. 19. 1); xviii. 2 (i. 14. 8), 7 (iv. 33. 13); xx. 5 (ii. 34. 3); xxii. 4 f. (v. 31. 2); xxiii. 1 (iv. 36. 6); xxxi. 1 f. (v. 17. 3); xxxii. 6 (i. 22. 1; iii. 8. 2), 9 (ii. 2. 5, iii. 8. 2); xxxiii. 13 ff. (iv. 17. 3, 36. 2), 17 (iv. 28. 1); xxxiv. 9 (iv. 11. 3); xxxix. 7 (iv. 17. 1); xliv. 3 ff. (iv. 33. 11), 7 (iii. 6. 1); xlviii. 13 (iv. 4. 3), 21 (iv. 41. 3), 23 (v. 7. 2); xlix. 1 (iii. 6. 1), 3 f. (v. 18. 3), 9 ff. (iv. 17. 1); l. 14 (iii. 17. 2), 18 ff. (iv. 17. 1); lvii. 4f. (iii. 10. 1, iv. 41. 3); 1xviii. 27 (iii. 22. 2); lxxv. 2 (iii. 9. 2), 3 (iv. 33. 11); lxxvii. 5 ff. (iii. 16. 3); lxxix. 1 (iii. 11. 8); lxxxi. 1, 6 f. (iii. 6. 1, iii. 19. 1); lxxxiv. 12 (iii. 5. 1); lxxxv. 13 (v. 31. 1); xc. 13 (iii. 23. 7); xciv. 4 ff. (iii. 10. 4); xcv. 1 (iv. 9. 1), 5 (iii. 6. 3); xcvii. 2 (iii. 10. 3); xcviii. 1 (iv. 33. 13); ci. 26 ff. (iv. 3. 1); ciii. 30 (v. 33. 1); cix. 1 (ii. 28. 7, iii. 6. 1); cx. 10 (iii. 23. 5); cxiii. 11 (iii. 8. 3); cxxxi. 10 f. (iii. 9. 2); cxlv. 6 (i. 10. 1); cxlviii. 5 f. (ii. 34. 2, iv. 41. 1). Prov. i. 20 f. (v. 20. 1); iii. 19 f. (iv. 20. 3); v. 22 (iii. 9. 3); viii. 15 (v. 24. 1), 22 ff., 27 (iv. 20. 3); xix. 17 (iv. 18. 6); xxi. 1 (v. 24. 1). Sap. vi. 19 (iv. 38. 3). Hos. iv. 1 (i. 19. 1); xii. 10 (iii. 12, 13, iv. 20. 6). Amos i. 2 (iii. 20. 4); viii. 9f. (iv. 33. 12). Mic. vii. 19 (iii. 20. 4). Joel iii. 16 (iv. 33. 11). Jon. i. 9, ii. 3, iii. 8 f. (iii. 20. 1). Hab. iii. 2 (iii. 16. 7), 3 ff. (iii. 20. 4, iv. 33. 11). Zech. vii. 9 ff. (iv. 17. 3, iv. 36. 2); viii. 16 f. (iv. 17. 3), 17 (iv. 36. 2); xii. 10 (iv. 33. 11). Mal. i. 10 f. (iv. 17. 5), ii. 10 (iv. 20. 2); iv. 1 (iv. 4, 3). Isa. i. 2 (iv. 2. 1, iv. 41. 2), 3 (i. 19. 1), 8 f. (iv. 4. 2, iv. 33. 13), 11 (iv. 17. 1), 16 (iv. 17. 1, iv. 36. 2, iv. 41. 3), 22 (iv. 12. 1), 23 (iv. 2. 6); ii. 3 f. (iv. 34. 4), 17 (iv. 33. 13); v. 6 (iii. 17. 3), 12 (ii. 22. 2, iv. 2. 4); vi. 5 (iv. 20. 8), 11 f. (v. 34. 2, v. 35. 1); vii. 10 ff. (iii. 21. 4); viii. 3 f. (iii. 16. 4, iv. 33. 11); ix. 6 (iii. 16. 3, iv. 33. 11); xi. 1 ff. (iii. 9. 3), 6 ff. (v. 33. 4); xii. 2 (iii. 10. 3); xiii. 9 (v. 35. 1); xxv. 8 (v. 12. 1), 9 (iv. 9. 2); xxvi. 10 (v. 35. 1), 19 (iv. 33. 11, v. 15. 1, v. 34. 1); xxvii. 6 (iv. 4. 1); xxviii. 16 (iii. 21. 7); xxix. 13 (iv. 12. 4); xxx. 1 (iv. 18. 3), 25 f. (v. 34. 2); xxxi. 9 (v. 34. 4); xxxii. 1 (v. 34. 4): xxxiii. 20 (iii. 20. 4); xxxv. 3 f. (iii. 20. 3, iv. 33 11); xl. 15, 17 (v. 29. 1); xli. 4 (iv. 5. 1); xlii. 5 (iv. 2. 1, v. 12. 2), 10 ff. (iv. 9. 1); xliii. 5 ff. (iv. 14. 1), 10 (iii. 6. 2, iv. 5. 1), 18 (iv. 33. 14), 23 (iv. 17. 3), xlv. 7 (iv. 40. 1); xlvi. 9 (i 5. 4), xlviii. 22 (i. 16. 3); lix. 16 (v. 35. 2); li. 6 (iv. 3. 1), liii. 4 (iv. 33. 11), 8 (ii. 28. 5); liv. 11 ff. (v. 34. 4); lvii. (iv. 34. 4), 16 (v. 12. 2); lviii. 6 ff. (iv. 17. 3), 14 (v. 34. 2); lx. 17; lxi. 1 ff. (iii. 9.3); lxiii. 9 (iii. 20. 4); lxv. 1 (iii. 6. 1), 17 ff. (iv. 26. 4, v. 35. 2, 34. 4), 21 (v. 35. 1), 22 (v. 15. 1), 25 (v. 33. 4), lxvi. 1 (iv. 2. 5), 2 (iv. 17. 3), 3 (iv. 18. 3), 22 (v. 36. 1). Jer. i. 5 (v. 15. 3); ii. 29 (iv 37. 7); iv. 22 (iv. 2. 1); v. 8 (iv. 41. 3, v. 7. 2); vi. 17 ff. (iv. 36. 2), 20 (iv. 17. 2); vii. 2 f. (iv. 17. 2), 3 (iv. 36 2), 21 (iv. 17. 3), 25 (iv. 36. 5), 29 f. (iv. 36. 2); viii. 16 (v. 30. 2); ix. 2 (iv. 25. 3), 24 f. (iv. 17. 3); x. 11 (iii. 6. 3); xi. 15 (iv. 17. 3); xiv. 9 (iv. 33. 12), xvii. 9 (iii. 18. 3, iv. 33. 11); xxii. 17 (iv. 18. 3, iii. 21. 9); xxiii. 7 f. (v. 34. 1), 20 (iv. 26. 1), 23 (iv. 19. 2), 29 (v. 17. 4); xxxi. 10 ff. (v. 34. 3), 26 (iv. 31. 1); xxxv. 15 (iv. 36. 5); xxxvi. 30f. (iii. 21. 9); xxxviii. 11 (iii. 8. 21). Lam. iv. 20 (iii. 20. 3). Bar. iv. 36—v. fin. (v. 35. 1). Ezech. ii. 1 (iv. 20. 10); xx. 12 (iv. 16. 1), 23 f. (iv. 15. 1), xxviii. 25 f. (v. 34. 1); xxxvi. 26 (iv. 23. 4); xxxvii. 1 ff. (v. 15. 1), 12 (v. 34. 1). Dan. ii. 23 f., 41 ff. (v. 26. 1); iii. 24 ff. (v. 5. 2); vii. 8 (v. 25. 33), 10 (ii. 7. 4), 14 (iv. 20. 11), 20 ff. (v. 25. 3), 27 (v. 34. 2); viii. 11 f., 23 ff. (v. 25. 4); ix. 7 (v. 25. 4); xii. 3 f., 7 (iv. 26. 1), 9 f. (i. 19. 2), xii. 13 (v. 34. 2). Sus. 52 f., 56 (iv. 26. 3). Bel 3 f., 24 (iv. 5. 2).

 

The Latin version, in which the greater part of these quotations are clothed, appears to be exact where it can be tested (cf. e.g. Isa. xlvi. 9 (i. 5. 4), xlviii. 22 (i. 16. 3), Dan. xii. 9 (i. 19. 2)). Assuming that it is so throughout, it is obvious that in Irenaeus we have an important witness to the LXX. text of the second century. The following variants taken from Books iii., iv., will shew the general tendencies of his text:

 

Gen. xlix. 10 cui repositum est (M mg ᾧ ἀπόκειται866866Cf. Justin, Dial. 120.); 18 in salutem tuam sustinui te, Domine (cf. F corr mg ap. Field). Exod. xxv. 40 facies omnia (F ποιήσεις πάντα, Luc.) secundum typum eorum quae vidisti. Num. xxiv. 17 surget dux in Israel (cf. Heb. שֵׁכֶט, Σ. σκῆπτρον; LXX. ἄνθρωπος ἐξ Ἰ.). Deut. v. 22 (19) scripsit ea in duabus tabulis lapideis (+ λιθίνας B abA Luc.); xxxii. 6 et fecit te et creavit te (+ καὶ ἔκτισέν σε AF, + καὶ ἔπλασέν σε Luc.). 1 Regn. xv. 22 auditus bonus super sacrificium (ἀγαθή Luc.). Ps. xxxix. 7 aures autem perfecisti mihi (possibly a correction from the Gallican Psalter, but a few cursives read after the Heb. ὠτία or ὦτα); xliv. 17 facti sunt tibi filii (B bART ἐγενήθησαν, ag. Bא ἐγενν.); xlix. 10 bestiae terrae (ἀγροῦ א c.aA, δρυμοῦ Bא), o15 in die tribulationis tuae (θλίψεώς σου א c.aAR); ci. 27 mutabis eos (ἀλλάξεις א, ἑλίξεις B(א c.a)AR(T)); cix. i suppedaneum pedum tuorum (ὑποπόδιον, not ὑποκάτω); cxiii. 11 om. ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς (with א c.aAT). Mic. vii. 19 ipse (αὐτός AQ) . . . proiciet (ἀπορρίψει A(Q), ἀποριφήσονται B), om. πάσας. Hab. iii. 3 pedes eius (οἱ πόδες AQ, κατὰ πόδας B). Isa. i. 17 iustificate viduam (χήραν B a.bאAΓ ag. χήρᾳ BQ); xi. 4 arguet gloriosos terrae (τοὺς ἐνδόξους אQ cor, ag. τ. ταπεινούς BAQ); xxv. 9 om. καὶ σώσει ἡμᾶς . . . ὑπεμείναμεν αὐτῷ (with אAQ, a hexaplaric addition, cf. Field, ad loc.); xxix. 13 populus hic labiis me honorat (om. with אAQ ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ καί ἐν); x1iii. 23 non servisti mihi in sacrificiis = οὐ[δὲ] ἐδούλευσάς μοι ἐν ταῖς θυσίαις [σου] א c.a (AΓ), fecisti in (cf. A* ); lxv. i qui me non quaerunt (ζητοῦσιν אAQ, ag. ἐπερωτῶσιν B). Jer. xliii. 31 inferam super eos (αὐτούς אAQ, ag. αὐτόν BQ corr), locutus sum super eos (ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς AQ, πρὸς αὐτ. Bא). Bar. v. 2 laetitiae (LXX. δικαιοσύνης).

 

A special interest attaches to Irenaeus' extracts from Daniel867867See above, p. 47.. For the most part they follow the version of Theodotion quite closely, even in the Greek additions. Two exceptions are worth noting: Dan. vii. 10 is quoted by Irenaeus as it is by Clement of Rome, in a form which agrees with neither LXX. nor Th.; Dan. xii. 9 is cited in the form Ἀπότρεχε, Δανιηλ· οὗτοι γὰρ οἱ λόγοι ἐμπεφραγμένοι εἰσίν, ἕως οἱ συνιέντες συνιῶσι καὶ οἱ λευκοὶ λευκανθῶσι, where ἀπότρεχε is a LXX. reading, whilst ἐμπεφραγμένοι is from Th. and the rest of the sentence seems to be suggested by his version (cf. ἕως . . . ἐκλευκανθῶσιν, Th.). This quotation however is professedly taken from a Valentinian source, which may account for its freedom.

 

7. Like Irenaeus, Justin quotes profusely, and his aim as an apologist and a controversialist compels him to cite his documents with some regard to verbal accuracy. For the criticism of the LXX. his writings afford even richer materials than those of Irenaeus, since his subject leads him, especially in the Dialogue with Trypho the Jew, to quote long extracts without break or interpolated matter; more than once an entire Psalm, or a passage exceeding in length one of our modern chapters, is copied into his pages, presumably as it stood in his text of the Greek Old Testament.

 

In the following list of Justin's quotations from the LXX. account has been taken only of his undoubted writings. A. = the First Apology, D. = the Dialogue; the Second Apology contains nothing to our purpose.

Gen. i. 1 ff. (A. 59, 64), 26 ff. (D. 62); iii. 15 (D. 102), 22 (D. 62); ix. 24—27 (D. 139); xi. 6 (D. 102); xv. 6 (D. 92); xvii. 14 (D. 23); xviii. 2 ff. (D. 126), 13 ff. (D. 56); xix. 1 ff. (D. 56), 23—25 (D. 56), 27 f. (D. 56); xxvi. 4 (D. 120); xxviii. 10—19 (D. 58, 120); xxxi. 1O—13 (D. 58); xxxii. 22—30 (D. 58, 126); xxxv. 6—10 (D. 58); xlix. 8—12 (A. 32, 54; D. 52, 120). Exod. ii. 23 (D. 59); iii. 2—4 (D. 60), 3 ff (A. 63); vi. 2—4 (D. 126); xvii. 16 (D. 49); xx. 22 (D. 75); xxiii. 20 f. (D. 75); xxxii. 6 (D. 20). Lev. xxvi. 40 f. (D. 16). Num. xi. 23 (D. 126); xxi. 8f. (A. 60); xxiv. 17 (A. 32, D. 106). Deut. x. 16 f. (D. 16); xxi. 23 (D. 96); xxvii. 26 (D. 95); xxxi. 2 f. (D. 126), 16—18 (D. 74); xxxii. 7—9 (D. 131), 15 (D. 20), 16—23 (D. 119), 20 (D. 27, 123), 22 (A. 60), 43 (D. 130); xxxiii. 13—17 (D. 91). Jos. v. 2 (D. 24); v. 13—vi. 2 (D. 62). 2 Regn. vii. 14—16 (D. 118). 3 Regn. xix. 10, 18 (D. 39). Ps. i. (A. 40); ii. (A. 40); ii. 7 f. (D. 122); iii. 5 f. (A. 38, D. 97); viii. 3 (D. 114); xiii. 2 ff. (D. 27); xvii. 44 f. (D. 28); xviii. 3 ff. (A. 40, D. 64); xxi. 1—24 (D. 18), 8 f. (A. 38), 17 ff. (A. 351 38, D. 97); xxiii. (D. 36); xxiii. 7 (A. 51, D. 85); xxxi. 2 (D. 141); xliv. (D. 38); xliv. 7 ff. (D. 56, 63); xlvi. 6—9 (D. 37); xlix. (D. 22); lxvii. 19 (D. 39); lxxi. 1—19 (D. 34, 64, 121); lxxi. 17—19 (D. 64); lxxxi. (D. 124); xcv. 1 ff. (A. 41), 5 (D. 79), 10 (D. 73); xcviii. (D. 37); xcviii. 1—7 (D. 64); cix. (D. 32); cix. 1 ff. (A. 45, D. 56), 3 ff. (D. 63), 4 (D. 118); cxxvii. 3 (D. 110); cxlviii. 1 f. (D. 85). Prov. viii. 21—29 (D. 129), 24—36 (D. 61). Job i. 6 (D. 79). Hos. x. 6 (D. 103). Amos v. 18—vi. 7 (D. 22). Mic. iv. 1—7 (D. 109); v. 2 (A. 34). Joel ii. 28 f. (D. 87). Jon. iv. 4 ff. (D. 107). Zech. ii. 6 (A. 52), 11 (D. 119), 10—iii. 2 (D. 115); iii. 1 ff. (D. 79); vi. 12 (D. 121); ix. 9 (A. 35, D. 53); xii. 10—12 (A. 52), 12 (D. 121); xiii. 7 (D. 53). Mal. i. 10—12 (D. 28, 41). Isa. i. 3 (A. 63), 7 (A. 47), 9 (A. 53, D. 140), 11 f. (A. 37), 16 ff. (A. 44, 61) 23 ff. (D. 27, 82); ii. 3 f. (A. 39), 5 ff. (D. 24, 135); iii. 9 (D. 136), 9—11 (D. 17), 9—15 (D. 133), 16 (D. 27); v. 18—25 (D. 17, 133), 20 (A. 49); vi. 10 (D. 12); vii. 10—16 (D. 42, 66), 14 (A. 33); viii. 4 (D. 77); ix. 6 (A. 35); xi. 1—3 (D. 87); xiv. 1 (D. 123); xvi. 1 (D. 114); xix. 24 f. (D. 123); xxvi. 2 ff. (D. 24); xxix. 13 f. (D. 27, 32, 78, 123); xxx. 1—5 (D. 79); xxxiii. 13—19 (D. 70); xxxv. 1—7 (D. 69), 4 ff. (A. 48); xxxix. 3 (D. 50); xl. 1—17 (D. 50); xlii. 1—4 (D. 123, 135), 5—13 (D. 65), 6f. (D. 26), 16 (D. 122), 19f. (D. 123); xliii. 10 (D. 122), 15 (D. 135); xlv. 23 (A. 52); xlix. 6 (D. 121), 8 (D. 122); l. 4 (D. 102), 6 ff. (A. 38); li. 4 f. (D. 11); lii. 10 f. (D. 13), 13—liii. 8 (A. 50), lii. 15—liii. 1 (D. 118); liii. 1 ff. (D. 42); liii. 8—12 (A. 51), 9 (D. 97); liv. 1 (A. 53); lv. 3 f. (D. 12), 3—13 (D. 14); lvii. 1 ff. (A. 48), 1—4 (D. 16), 1 (D. 110), 2 (D. 97, 118), 5 f. (D. 27); lviii. 1—11 (D. 15), 2 (A. 35), 6 f. (A. 37), 13 ff. (D. 27); lxii. 10—lxiii. 6 (D. 26); lxii. 12 (D. 119); lxiii. 15—lxiv. 12 (D. 25); lxiii. 17 (A. 52); lxiv. 10 ff. (A. 47, 52); lxv. 1 ff. (A. 49, D. 24), 1 (D. 119), 2 (A. 35, 38, D. 97), 8 ff. (D. 136), 9—12 (D. 135), 17—25 (D. 81); lxvi. 1 (A. 37, D. 22), 5—11 (D. 85), 23 f. (D. 44), 24 (A. 52, D. 140). Jer. ii. 12 (D. 114), 13 (D. 19); iv. 3 (D. 28); vii. 21 ff. (D. 22); ix. 25 ff. (D. 28), 26 (A. 53); xxxviii. 15 (D. 78), 27 (D. 123), 31 f. (D. 11). Thren. iv. 20 (A. 55). Ezech. iii. 17—19 (D. 82); xiv. 20 (D. 44, 140); xvi. 3 (D. 77); xx. 19—26 (D. 21); xxxvi. 12 (D. 123); xxxvii. 7 ff. (A. 53). Dan. vii. 9—28 (D. 31), 13 (A. 51).

 

From the circumstances of Justin's life we are prepared to find in his writings an eclectic text of the LXX. Of Palestinian birth but of Greek parentage, he seems to have divided his maturer life between Ephesus and Rome; and each of these associations may have supplied textual peculiarities. The general result may be gathered from a few specimens of the readings exhibited by Justin's longer extracts from the O.T.

 

Gen. xxvii. 10—19.     11 ἔθηκε, D silE     13 ἐστήρικτο ἐπ᾿ αὐτήν· ὁ δὲ εἶπεν | ὁ θεός 1°] pr Κύριος | om ὁ θεός 2°     14 γῆς, DE | ἐπί 1°] εἰς | im ἐπί 2°, 3°, 4° (ἐπ᾿) | λίβα] νότον 15 ἐν ὁδῷ πάσῃ ἣ ἄν     18 ὑπέθηκεν, D sil     19 om ἐκείνου | Οὐλαμμαούς, DE | τὸ ὄνομα.     xxxii. 22—30.    24 ἄγγελος μετ᾿ αὐτοῦ, D    26 με εὐλογήσῃς, D silE     28 om ἔτι, E | ἔσται τὸ ὄνομά σου, D | τοῦ θεοῦ, E | δυνατός] + ἔσῃ, D silE     29 om σύ, D 30 ἐσώθη] ἐχάρη (but ἐσώθη, infr. D. 126).    Deut. xxxii. 16—23. 16 ἐξεπίκραναν, AF     17 om καὶ οὐ θεῷ, θεοῖς | ᾔδεισαν] οἴδασιν | πρόσφατοι] pr καί, A     20 om ἡμερῶν, AF     21 παρώξυναν] παρώργισαν, A     22 καυθήσεται] pr καί |om κάτω.     Deut. xxxiii. 13—17. 13 ἐπ᾿] ἀπό (cf. ἀπ᾿ AF) | οὐρανῶν, δρόσων | ἀβύσσου     14 καθ᾿ ὥραν] καθαρῶν     15 ἀπό] pr καί, AF| ἀενάων] pr καὶ ποταμῶν    16 καθ᾿ ὥραν] καρπῶν | τῇ βάτῳ | ἐπ᾿] ἐν, AF     17 τῆς γῆς, AF     Jos. v. 13—vi. 2.    13 om καὶ 2°| ἴδεν] ὁρᾷ | ἐναντίον] κατέναντι | om καὶ ἡ ῥομφαία . . . αὐτοῦ | ὁ Ἰησοῦς 14 ὁ δέ] καί    15 τὸ ὑπόδημα ἐκ] τὰ ὑποδήματα | ἐφ᾿ ᾧ | om νῦν (so A, but adding σύ) | ἅγιος] γῆ ἀγία.    vi. 1 ἐξ αὐτῆς ἐξεπορ. | om οὐδὲ εἰσεπορεύετο     2 om ἐγώ    Ps. xxi. 1—24.    4 τοῦ Ἰσραήλ א c.aU    7 ἀνθρώπων, אRU | ἐξουθένημα, אAR    8 καὶ (אU) ἐλάλησαν χείλεσιν    11 ἀπὸ γαστρός, א c.a    12 βοηθῶν] + μοι. א c.aR    14 ὁ ἀρπάζων] om ὁ, RU    15 ἐξεχύθη, א c.aR    16 ὡσεὶ] ὡς, אARU    17 πόδας] + μου, א c.aARU    Ps. xlix.    1 om καί 2°, א c.aRT    3 ἐναντίον] ἐνώπιον, RT     4 διακρῖναι] pr τοῦ, א c.aART    6 ὁ θεός, אRT    7 διαμαρτυροῦμαι, א c.aT    10 δρυμοῦ] ἀγροῦ, א c.aA    16 ἐκδιηγῇ, א c.aAT    19δολιότητας, א c.aR a    21 + τὰς ἁμαρτίας σου, B cא c.aT    22 οὐ μή, א c.aRT    23 τοῦ θεοῦ] μου, א c.aT.    Prov. viii. 21 a—36.    24 τὰς πηγὰς προελθεῖν (but in D. 129 πρ. τ. πηγάς)    25 τῶν βουνῶν (but D. 129 omits art.)    26 ὁ θεός    28 καὶ ὡς (1°)] ἡνίκα, אA    29 καὶ ὡς] ἡνίκα    35 ἡτοίμασται    36 ἀσεβοῦσιν] + εἰς, א c.aA.    Amos v. 18—vi. 7.    18 τοῦ κερίου    19 ἐάν φύγῃ] ὅταν ἐκφύγῃ, A | ἄρκτος | ὁ ὄφις    20 αὕτη] αὐτοῖς    22 τὰ ὁλοκαυτώματα, A | τὰς θυσίας | προσδέξομαι] + αὐτά, AQ mg | σωτηρίου, A    23 ἀπόστησον | ἦχον] πλῆθος | ψαλμῶν· ὄργανον    25 om μʹ ἔτη ] + λέγει Κύριος, AQ    26 Ῥαφάν | om αὐτῶν, AQ.    vi. 1 ἀπετρυγησαν] pr οἱ ὠνομασμένοι ἐπὶ τοῖ ἀρχηγοῖς (a doublet for the Greek which follows, ascribed to Symmachus by SH) | om καί 2° | αὐτοί] ἑαυτοῖς, Q a | τοῦ Ἰσρ.] om τοῦ    2 + εἰς Χαλάνην, 22, 36, 42; Heb. | διέλθατε] πορεύθητε | Ἑμὰθ Ῥαββά] Ἁμὰθ τὴν μεγάλην (τὴν μεγ., Symm. "20, 36, 51 al.") | ἀλλοφύλων] pr τῶν | πλείονι, A | om. ἐστίν | ὑμετέρων ὁρίων] ὁρ. ὑμῶν    3 κακήν] πονηράν    4 καθεύδοντες] κοιμώμενοι | ἐρίφους] ἄρνας    5 ἑστῶτα, AQ    6 τὸν διυλισμένον (a doublet)] ἐν φιάλαις (Heb.)    7 δυναστῶν] + τῶν ἀποικιζομένων | καὶ μεταστραφήσεται οἴκημα κακουργῶν (doublet of καὶ ἐξαρθ. κτλ.).    Zach. ii. 10—iii. 2.    10 τέρπου] χαῖρε (cf. Eus. d.e., p. 252) | ὅτι, א    o11 καταφεύξονται] προστεθήσονται | κατασκηνώσω | ἐπιγνώσῃ] γνώσονται | Παντοκράτωρ] τῶν δυνάμεων | ἀπέσταλκε     12 τῆ μερίδι] καὶ τὴν μερίδα, א c.aA, and, without καὶ, אQΓ | αἱρετιεῖ] ἐκλέξεται "86 in textu ex alio videlicet interprete" (Field).    iii. 1 om Κύριος, Κυρίου | τὸν Ἰησοῦν] om τόν, AQΓ | ὁ διάβολος] om     2 om ἐπιτίμησαι (1°) . . . διάβολε | om ὡς (Heb.).    Mal. i. 10—12.    10 θέλημά μου | τὰς θυσίας ὑμῶν     11 ἀπό, AΓ | om καί 1°, AQ | προσάγεται] προσφέρεται | διότι μέγα] ὅτι τιμᾶται (ὅτι μέγα D. 41) | om Παντοκράτωρ.    Isa. i. 16—20.    17 χήραν, B abאAΓ    18 δεῦτε] + καί, אAQΓ | διαλεχθῶμεν868868See above, p. 407. | χιόνα, ἔρεον] ἔρεον, χιόνα    19 (A. 16 omits καὶ ἐὰν θέλητε . . . φάγεσθε.)    Isa lii. 13—liii. 12.   lii. 13 ἰδοὺ] ἴδε γὰρ] A.    14 πολλοὶ ἐπί σε A.D.    15 θαυμασθήσονται D. | om ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ A.    16 om ὄψονται A.    liii. 2 ἐναντίον] ἐνώπιον A. | ἐν. αὐτοῦ ῶς παιδ. A.D.    3 τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων] τοὺς ἀνθρώπους A. (cf. πάντας ἀνθρώπους, AQ)    5 αὐτός | ἀνομίας, ἁμαρτίας A., אAQ | om ἡμῶν 3° A.    6 om Κύριος A.    7 κείροντος A.D., B + αὐτόν A., א c.aAQ    8 τοῦ λαοῦ μου] αὐτῶν A. | ἤχθη] ἥκει A.D., Q mg    9 θανάτου] + αὐτοῦ A., B a.bאAQ    10 τοῦ πόνου om τοῦ A.    11 αὐτῶν] ἡμῶν A.D.    12 παρεδόθη] pr αὐτός A.    Isa. lxii. 10—lxiii. 6.    11 ταῖς θυγατράσιν | σοὶ ὁ σωτήρ, אAQ | om αὐτοῦ 1°, AQ    12 οὐ καταλελειμμένη, (א).    lxiii. 1 ἐρύθημα, B | ἱματίων] + αὐτοῦ | βίᾳ] pr ἀναβαίνων (cf. Symm. βαίνων, Heb.)    3 +ληνὸν ἐπάτησα μονώτατος, Symm., Heb. (a doublet of πλ. καταπεπ.) | om μου, אAQ | + εἰς γῆν, B a.bאAQ    5 οὐδείς, אAQ | ἀντελάβετο, א | om αὐτούς | om μου

 

To shew Justin's relation to the two recensions of Daniel, it is necessary to place some verses side by side with the corresponding contexts of the LXX. and Theodotion869869Words common to Justin and LXX. but not in Th. are printed in small uncials; those common to Justin and Th. but not to LXX., in thick cursives. Most of the remaining words are to be found in the three texts..

 

Justin, Dial. 31 Dan. vii. 9—14. LXX. Ibid., Th.

ἐθεώρουν ἕως ὅτου θρόνοι ἐτέθησαν, καὶ παλαιὸς ἡμερῶν ἐκάθητο ὡσεὶ χιόνα λευκόν, καὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ ὡσεὶ ἔριον καθαρόν, ὁ θρόνος αὐτοῦ ὡσεὶ φλὸξ πυρός, οἱ τροχοὶ αὐτοῦ πῦρ φλέγον. ποταμὸς πυρὸς εἷλκεν   μενος ἐκ που · χίλιαι χιλιάδες ἐλειτούργουν αὐτῷ καὶ μύριαι μυριάδες παρειστήκεισαν αὐτῷ· βίβλοι ἀνεῴχθησαν καὶ κριτήριον ἐκάθισεν. ἐθεώρουν τότε

ἐθεώρουν ἕως ὅτε θρόνοι ἐτέθησαν, καὶ παλαιὸς ἡμερῶν ἐκάθητο ὡσεὶ χιόνα, καὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ ὡσεὶ ἔριον λευκὸν καθαρόν· ὁ θρόνος ὡσεὶ φλὸξ πυρός, τροχοὶ αὐτοῦ πῦρ καιόμενον. ποταμὸς πυρὸς ἕλκων, καὶ       πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ποταμὸς πυρός· χίλιαι χιλιάδες ἐθεράπευον αὐτὸν καὶ μύριαι μυριάδες παρειστήκεισαν αὐτῷ· καὶ κριτήριον ἐκάθισε καὶ βίβλοι ἠνεῴχθησαν. ἐθεώρουν

ἐθεώρουν ἕως ὅτου θρόνοι ἐτέθησαν, καὶ παλαιὸς ἡμερῶν ἐκάθητο, καί τὸ ἔνδυμα αὐτοῦ ὡσεὶ χιὼν λευκόν, καὶ ἡ θρὶξ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ ὡσεὶ ἔριον καθαρόν· ὁ θρόνος αὐτοῦ φλὸξ πυρός, οἱ τροχοὶ αὐτοῦ πῦρ φλέγον. ποταμὸς πυρὸς εἷλκεν ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ· χίλιαι χιλιάδες ἐλειτούργουν αὐτῷ, καὶ μύριαι μυριάδες παριστήκεισαν αὐτῷ· κριτήριον ἐκάθισεν, καὶ βίβλοι ἠνεῴχθησαν. ἐθεώρουν τότε ἀπὸ φωνῆς τῶν λόγων τῶν μεγάλων ὧν τὸ

τῶν μεγάλων λόγων ὧν τὸ κέρας λάλεῖ, καὶ   τὸ θηρίον, καὶ ἀπώλετο τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐδόθη εἰς καῦσιν πυρός· καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ θηρία μετεστάθη τῆς ἀρχῆς αὐτῶν, καὶ   ζωῆς τοῖς θηρίοις ἐδόθη ἕως . ἐθεώρουν ἐν ὁράματι τῆς νυκτὸς, καὶ ἰδοὺ μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὡς υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενος, καὶ ἦλθεν ἕως τοῦ παλαιοῦ τῶν ἡμερῶν, καὶ   ἐνώπιον αῦτοῦ· καὶ προσήγαγον αῦτον. καὶ

τότε τῶν λόγων τῶν μεγάλων ὧν τὸ κέρας ἐλάλει· θεωρῶν ἤμην, καὶ   τὸ θηρίον, καὶ ἀπώλετο τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐδόθη εἰς καῦσιν πυρός. καὶ τοὺς κύκλῳ αὐτοῦ ἀπέστησε τῆς ἐξουσίας αὐτῶν, καὶ   ζωῆς ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς ἕως   καὶ καιροῦ. ἐθεώρουν ἐν ὁράματι τῆς νυκτὸς, καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐπὶ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὡς υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου ἤρχετο, καὶ ὡς παλαιὸς ἡμερῶν παρῆν· καὶ   παρῆσαν αὐτῷ. καὶ ἐδόθη αὐτῷ ἐξουσία καὶ τιμὴ βασιλική, καὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη τῆς γῆς κατὰ γένη καὶ πᾶσα δόξα αὐτῷ λατρεύουσα· καὶ ἡ ἐξουσία αὐτοῦ ἐξουσία αἰώνιος ἥτις οὐ μὴ ἀρθῇ, καὶ ἡ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ ἥτις οὐ μὴ φθαρῇ.

κέρας ἐκεῖνο ἐλάλει, ἕως ἀνῃρέθη τὸ θηρίον καὶ ἀπώλετο, καὶ  τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ ἐδόθη εἰς καῦσιν πυρός. καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν θηρίαωνἀρχὴ μετεστάθη, καὶ μακρότης ζωῆς ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς ἕως καιροῦ καὶ καιροῦ. ἐθεώρουν ἐν ὁράματι τῆς νυκτὸς, καὶ ἰδοὺ μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὡς υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενος, καὶ ἕως τοῦ παλαιοῦ τῶν ἡμερῶν ἔφθασεν· καὶ προσήχθη αὐτῷ. καὶ αὐτῷ ἐδόθη ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ βασιλεία, καὶ πάντες οἱ λαοί, φυλαί, καὶ γλῶσσαι δουλεύσουσιν αὐτῷ· ἡ ἐξουσία αὐτοῦ ἐξουσία αἰώνιος ἥτις οὐ παρελεύσεται, καὶ ἡ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ οὐ διαφθαρήσεται.

 

The student will notice that Justin's O.T. text is a mixed one. (a) In Genesis it contains many readings of D or DE where those later uncials depart from A; (b) in Deuteronomy it occasionally supports A or AF against B, and (c) in the Psalms the group ART, with the concurrence sometimes of א, sometimes of א c.a; (d) in the Prophets it not seldom agrees with Q (AQ, אAQ). In the Minor Prophets it is startling to find in Justin more than one rendering which is attributed to Symmachus; and as it is in the highest degree improbable that his text has been altered from the text of Symmachus, or at a later time from a Hexaplaric copy of the LXX., we are led to the conclusion that these readings belong to an older version or recension from which both Justin and Symmachus drew. It is at least possible that many of the readings in which Justin appears to stand alone may be attributable to the same origin.

Justin's Daniel text requires separate notice. It will be seen to be in fundamental agreement with the LXX., but not without a fair number of Theodotion's readings. Ἐλειτούργουν meets us here, as in Clement of Rome, and the phrases τὰ λοιπὰ θηρία μετεστάθη τῆς ἀρχῆς, μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν ἐρχόμενος, ἕως τοῦ παλαιοῦ, προσήγαγον αῦτον, are undoubtedly due to Theodotion, or rather to the version on which he worked. On the other hand ἔχων περιβολὴν, τὸ τρίχωμα, πῦρ φλέγον, ἀπετυμπανίσθη, χρόνος ζωῆς, οἱ παρεστηκότες, and the whole of v. 14 as clearly belong to the Chigi text. That this mixture is not due to an eclectic taste or a fickle memory is clear from the fact that the same text meets us in the Latin version of the passage as given by Tertullian870870Burkitt, Old Latin and Itala, p. 23 ff..

In a few instances Justin shews a disposition to criticise the LXX. reading. E.g. in Ps. lxxxi. (lxxxii.) 7, he probably proposed to read ὡς ἄνθρωπος (כְּ‍אָדָם) for ὡς ἄνθρωποι871871Dial. 124. In the editions ἄνθρωποι occurs twice, but the context appears to shew that the singular should stand in the quotation.. Similarly in Deut. xxxii. 8 he realises that the LXX. has substituted ἀγγέλων θεοῦ for בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל872872Dial. 13 f.. He maintains that in Gen. xlix. 10 the reading of the LXX. is ἕως ἂν ἔλθῃ ᾧ ἀπόκειται, though according to the Jewish interpreters of his time the words should rather be rendered ἕως ἂν ἔ. τὰ ἀποκείμενα αὐτῷ. His text of the LXX. contained some remarkable interpolations; thus he quotes Ps. xcv. (xcvi.) 10 a in the form ὁ κύριος ἐβασίλευσεν ἀπὸ τοῦ ξύλου873873Ap. i. 41, Dial. 73. Cf. Tert. c. Marc. iii. 19, adv. Jud. 10. No existing Greek MS. of the Psalter is known to contain the words except cod. 156 (see p. 160), which gives them in the suspicious form ἀπὸ τῷ ξύλῳ. A ligno is found in the Sahidic and in the Latin of R and in some other O.L. texts. Cf. the hymn Vexilla regis: "impleta sunt quae concinit | David fideli carmine | dicendo nationibus | Regnavit a ligno Deus" (for the literature see Julian, Dict. of Hymnology, p. 1220)., and ascribes to Jeremiah the words ἐμνήσθη δὲ κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἀπὸ Ἰσραὴλ τῶν νεκρῶν αὐτοῦ τῶν κακοιμημένων εἰς γῆν χώματος, καὶ κατέβη πρὸς αὐτοὺς εὐαγγελίσασθαι αὐτοῖς τὸ σωτήριον αὐτοῦ874874Dial. 72. The same Apocryphon is quoted by Irenaeus (iii. 20. 4, iv. 22. 1, 33. 1, 12, v. 31. 1) and attributed by him to Jeremiah (iv. 31. 1) or to Isaiah (iii. 20. 4). Cf. Lightfoot, Clement, ii. p. 40, and the writer's Apostles' Creed³, p. 58 f.. He cites also some words which appear to have found a place in his copy after 2 Esdr. vi. 21: καὶ εἶπεν Ἔσδρας τῷ λαῷ Τοῦτο τὸ πάσχα ὁ σωτὴρ ἡμῶν καὶ ἡ καταφυγὴ ἡμῶν· καὶ ἐὰν διανοηθῆτε καὶ ἀναβῇ ὑμῶν ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν ὅτι Μέλλομεν αὐτὸν ταπεινοῦν ἐν σημείῳ, καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἐλπίσωμεν (? ἐλπίσητε) ἐπ᾿ αὐτόν, οὐ μὴ ἐρημωθῇ ὁ πόπος οὗτος εἰς ἅπαντα χρόνον, λέγει ὁ θεὸς τῶν δυνάμεων· ἐὰν δὲ μὴ πιστεύσητε αὐτῷ μηδὲ εἰσακούσητε τοῦ κηρύγματος αὐτοῦ, ἔσεσθε ἐπίχαρμα τοῖς ἔθνεσι875875Dial. ib.. These passages appear to be of Christian origin, yet Justin is so sure of their genuineness that he accuses the Jews of having removed them from their copies.

 

8. Hippolytus of Portus, as we learn from the inscription on the chair of his statue and from other ancient sources, was the author of a large number of Biblical commentaries876876On his works see Lightfoot, Clement of Rome, ii. pp. 388 ff., 419 ff.. These included works on the Hexaemeron and its sequel (τὰ μετὰ τὴν ἑξαήμερον); on Exodus, and portions of Numbers and Samuel; on the Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs; on Zechariah, Isaiah, Jeremiah, parts of Ezekiel, and the Book of Daniel. Of these exegetical works there remains only the commentary on Daniel877877Edited by G. W. Bonwetsch and H. Achelis in the new Berlin Corpus (Hippolytus' Werke, i., Leipzig, 1897)., with fragments of most of the rest. The great treatise Adversus omnes haereses yields but little in the way of Scriptural quotations878878The references in the Index locorum of Duncker and Schneidewin's edition (Göttingen, 1859) direct the reader for the most part to mere allusions, or citations of only a few consecutive words., but the minor theological works collected by Lagarde879879In Hippolyti Romani quae feruntur omnia Graece (Leipzig, 1858). supply a considerable number of fairly long extracts from the Pentateuch, the Psalms, and the Prophets. The text of the LXX. which is exhibited in these passages is often of much interest, as a few specimens will shew.

 

Gen. i.7 ἐπάνω] ὑπεράνω 28 κατακυριεύσατε] κατακληρονομήσατε. xlix. 8 ff. (Lag. 5 (1), 102 (2))    8 αἰνεσάτωσαν (1) αἰνέσαισαν (2) 9 ἐκ βλαστοῦ μου υἱέ (2)    10 ᾦ ἀπόκειται (1), τὰ ἀποκείμενα αὐτῷ (2) | αὐτὸς] ἔσται (1)    12 χαροποί (cf. Field, ad loc.) | ὡς ἀπὸ οἴνου: cf. ἀπὸ οἴνου, ADF. Exod. xx. 13 ff. οὐ μοιχεύσεις, οὐ φονεύσεις, οὐ κλέψεις.    Deut. xxxii. 34 f.   34 παῤ ἐμοῦ    35 ὅταν] pr ἐν καιρῷ, AF.    22 ἐκπηδήσεται, B.    Ruth ii. 9 ὑδρεύωνται, A    14 ἐν τῷ ὄξει, Ba.bA.    Ps. lxviii. 1 ff.  4 ἐγγίζειν] ἐλπίζειν (B a.bאR) με (R)    5 ἥρπαζον    6 ἔγνως] οἶδας | ἀπεκρύβησαν, א c.a    8 ἐκάλυψαν ἐντροπῇ    10 κατέφαγε.    Prov. vi. 27 ἀποδήσει] ἀποδεσμεύει.    xxiii. 29 f.   29 ἀηδίαι, אA | πελιδνοί, B b    30 ἐν οἴνῳ | ἰχνευόντων] κατασκοπούντων.    Job ii. 9 d πλανῆτις, א c.aA.    Am. v. 12 καταπατοῦντες, AQ.    Mic. ii. 7 f. πορεύονται    8 κατέναντι] κατὰ πρόσωπον | δορὰν] δόξαν (sic).    iii. 5 ἤγειραν] ἡγίασαν, Q mg.    v. 5 ἔσται αὕτη ἡ παῤ ἐμοῦ εἰρήνη ὅταν ὁ Ἀσσύριος (cf. AQ) ἐπέλθῃ.    Ma1. iv. 4 ἀποστέλλω] πέμψω | πρίν] + ἤ | ἡμέραν] pr τήν, Γ    5 πατέρων ἐπὶ τέκνα | ἐλθὼν πατάξω, א c.b.    Isa. x. 12 ff.  13 om. ἐν bis, אAQΓ    14 τῇ χειρὶ] + μου, AQ    16 Κύριος σαβαώθ] ἀδωναὶ Κύριος    17 πυρὶ καιομένῳ] φλογί (cf. Symm.).    xiv. 4 ff.  11 εἰς ᾅδου] εἰς γῆν | κατακάλυμμά] κατάλειμμα    12 πρὸς] εἰς, א    o14 νεφελῶν, אAQΓ    16 θαυμάσουσιν, אAQΓ    19 τεθνηκότων] πεπτωκότων    20 καθαρός] κομψός | χρόνον] χρόνιος    21 σφαγῆναι] εἰς σφαγήν.    xlv. 11 + καὶ τῶν θυγατέρων μου (cf. אAQ)    13 om βασιλέα, א c.bAQ    14 ἐν σοὶ προσκυνήσουσιν.    lxvi. 24 τελευτήσει, BאQ (ag. A, τελευτᾷ).    Ezech. xxviii. 5 ἐμπορίᾳ] ἐμπειρίᾳ.    Dan. ii. 1 ff.  1 βασιλεία] + Ναβουχοδονοσορ, A    5 ἐὰν] + οὖν, AQ | σύγκρισιν] + αὐτοῦ,

 

The text of Hippolytus, it will be seen, like most of the patristic texts, leans slightly to AF in the Pentateuch, א or א c.a in the poetical books, and AQ in the Prophets. At the same time it is full of surprises, and often stands quite alone among existing witnesses.

 

9. Our last witness is Clement of Alexandria. Clement had learnt the Christian faith during his early travels in Asia Minor and Magna Graecia, and he may have received copies of O.T. writings from his first Christian masters. Hence it must not be too hastily assumed that the text of his O.T. quotations is purely Alexandrian. On the other hand it is reasonable to suppose that during the period of his literary activity he was familiar with the Alexandrian text and used it when he quoted from his MS. On the whole therefore we may expect his quotations to be fairly representative of the Biblical text current at Alexandria during the generation preceding the compilation of the Hexapla.

Clement quotes both the Jewish and the Christian scriptures profusely, but his extracts seldom extend beyond two or three verses, and are often broken by comments or copied with considerable freedom. His purpose was didactic and not polemical; even in the λόγος προτρεπτικός he aims to persuade rather than to compel assent, whilst the Paedagogus and the Stromateis are addressed exclusively to persons under instruction, to whom the Scriptures were a familiar text-book. Hence he is exact only when verbal precision is necessary; often it is sufficient for his purpose to work into his argument a few words from a Scriptural context, giving the sense of the rest in his own words. Still it is possible even in these broken references to catch glimpses of the text which lay before him, and in the dearth of early Christian literature emanating from Alexandria, these are of no little value to the student of the Greek Bible880880Clement's text of the Gospels has been examined by Mr P. M. Barnard (Biblical texts of Clement of Alexandria in the Four Gospels and the Acts, Cambridge, 1899) with some interesting and important results. His text of the LXX. is not likely to be equally instructive, but it ought to reward a patient investigator. [Since this note was written an examination of Clement's LXX. text has been made by Dr O. Stäh1in (Clemens Alex. u. die Septuaginta, Nürnberg, 1901).]. A generally full and accurate index of Clement's Biblical quotations will be found in the edition of Potter; here it must suffice to give some specimens of the text which they exhibit in the Pentateuch, the poetical books, and the Prophets.

 

(a) Gen. i. 26 (strom. v. 29) κατ᾿ εἰκόνα καὶ ὁμοίωσιν ἡμετέραν (elsewhere Cl. reads ὁμ. ἡμῶν, or omits the pronoun).    xxxvii. 24 (strom. v. 54) ὁ δὲ λάκκος κενός, DE.    Exod. xx. 13 ff. (protrept. 108, strom. ii. 33) οὐ φονεύσεις οὐ μοιχεύσεις . . . οὐ κλέψεις οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις, AF.    Lev. xviii. i ff. (strom. ii. 46).    3 ἐν αὐτῇ (ἐπ᾿ αὐτῇ B, ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς B abAF) οὐ ποιήσετε (ποιηθήσεται B)    4 πορεύεσθε A    5 ὁ ποιήσας αὐτά.    Deut. xxxii. 23 ff. (paed. i. 68)    24 ἐπαποστελῶ, A | τῆς γῆς, A (F)    41 ff. ἀνταποδώσω, AF    42 + καὶ ἡ μάχαιρά μου φάγεται κρέα ἀπὸ αἵματος τραυματιῶν, AF    (b) Ps. xxxiii. 12 ff. (strom. iv. 111).    13 ἡμέρας ἰδεῖν, אAR    14 χείλη σου, א c.aAR.    xcv. 5 (protrept. 62) δαιμονίων εἰσὶν εἴδωλα (cf. Iren.).    cii. 14 (paed. i. 62) μνήσθητι, Bא Th.    cxl. 5 (paed. i. 79) ἐλεγχέτω με δίκαιος καὶ παιδευσάτω.    cl. 4 ὀργάνῳ, BאRT.    Prov. i. 25 (paed. i. 85) ὑπηκούετε, אA | οὐ προσείχετε, אAC (ἠπειθήσατε, B).    iii. 5 ff. (strom. ii. 4).    6 ἐν πάσαις, A | τὰς ὁδούς σου] + ὁ δὲ ποῦς σου οὐ μὴ προσκόπτῃ (cf. אc.a: SH pr ÷12 παιδεύει, אA (ἐλεγχει, B).    xxiii. 13 μὴ ἀπόσχου (ἀπόσχῃ LXX.) νήπιον παιδεύων (A; παιδεύειν, B).    Sir. i. 18 (paed. i. 68) + φόβος γὰρ Κυρίου ἀπωθεῖται ἁμαρτήματα (so far 248), ἄφηβος δ᾿ οὐ δυνήσεται δικαιωθῆναί, O.L.    ix.9 (paed. ii. 54) μὴ συμβολοκοπήσῃς] μὴ συμματακλιθῆς ἐπ᾿ ἀγκῶνα, O.L.    xxxiv. 25 (paed. ii. 31) ἀπώλεσεν] ἡχρείωσε.    xxxvi. 6 (paed. i. 42) ὡς φίλος μῶκος] ὁ φιλήδονος καὶ μοῖχος (cf. ὡς φίλόμοιχος, 55, 254).    xxxviii. 1 (paed. ii. 68) om. τιμαῖς, 106, 296, O.L.    xxxix. 13 (paed. ii. 76) ἀγροῦ (ὑγροῦ אAC)] ὑδάτων.    18 (paed. ii. 44) ὅς ἐλαττώσει] ἐλάττωσις εἰς, Heb.    (c) Am. iv. 13 (protrept. 79) ἰδοὺ ἐγώ, B a.bAQ (om B).    Nah. iii. 4 (paed. i. 81) ἐπίχαρις, B a.bQ.    Mal. i. 10 ff. (strom. v. 137).    11 om. καὶ 1°, AQ | θυμίαμα] θυσία | προσάγεται] προσφέρεται (cf. Justin).    Isa. ix. 6 (paed. i. 24) υἱὸς καὶ ἐδόθη, אAQΓ | om ἐγενήθη, Γ | ἐκλήθη (καλεῖται, BאQΓ, καλέσει, A) | + θαυμαστός σύμβουλος (א c.aA) θεὸς δυναστὴς πατὴρ αἰώνιος ἄρχων εἰρήνης (א c.aA).    7 μεγάλη ἡ ἀρχὴ αὐτοῦ] + τῷ πληθύνειν τὴν παιδείαν, Th. | ὅριον] πέρας, Th., Symm. xi. 1 ff. (paed. i. 61).    xi. 4 ἐλέγξει τοὺς ἁμαρτωλοὺς τῆς γῆς (cf. Iren.).    xxix. 13 (paed. i. 76) ὁ λαὸς οὗτος τοῖς χείλεσιν αὐτῶν τιμῶσί με, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἐστὶν ἀπ᾿ ἐμοῦ· μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με διδάσκοντες ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων (cf. Mt. xv., Mc. vii.). lxvi. 13 (paed. i. 21) ὑμᾶς παρακαλέσω, א.    Jer. ix. 23 f. (paed. i. 37): v. 24 abbreviated as in 1 Cor. i. 31.    xiii. 24 ff. (strom. iv. 165 f.).    24 διέσπειρα, BאQ (διεφθειρα A) | ὑπό, אAQ (ἀπό, B) | φερόμενα] πετώμενα    25 ἀπειθεῖν ὑμᾶς ἐμοί    27 μοιχεία anarthr., Q | χρεμετισμός anarthr., B.    xxiii. 23 f. (protrept. 78).    24 εἰ ποιήσει τι ἄνθρωπος (εἰ κρυβήσεταί τις, B, εἰ κρ. ἄνθρωπος, AQ).    Bar. iii. 13 (paed. i. 92) om χρόνον, B.    Thren. i. 1 (paed. i. 80) ἄρχοντα χωρῶν ἐγενήθη εἰς φόρους.    Dan. ix. 24 ff. (strom. i. 125) as in Th. (B), with the addition καό ἥμισυ τῆς ἑβδομάδος καταπαύσει θυμίαμα θυσίας καὶ πτερυγίου ἀφανισμοῦ ἕως συντελείας καὶ σπουδῆς τάξιν ἀφανισμοῦ (cf. B abAQ).

 

10. This examination has been but partial, even within the narrow field to which it was limited. It has dealt only with direct quotations, and in the case of Hippolytus and Clement of Alexandria, only with a few of these. Moreover, the student who wishes to examine the whole of the evidence must not limit himself to the few great writers who have been named. Even if he adds the writings of Aristides, Tatian, Athenagoras, Theophilus, and the anonymous Teaching and Epistle to Diognetus, there will still remain the fragments collected in the Relliquiae Sacrae and by the researches of Pitra, and the Pseudo-Clementine, apocryphal, and Gnostic literature of the second century. Still more important help may be obtained from Latin Christian writers who quote the O.T. in the Old Latin version, e.g. Cyprian, Lucifer, Vigilius of Thapsus, the Donatist Tyconius, and the author of the Speculum881881See above, p. 97, and the art. Old Latin Versions in Hastings' D. B. iii. (already mentioned, p. 88).. This part of the evidence was collected for Holmes and Parsons, and will be presented in a more permanent form, if not at so much length, in the apparatus of the larger Septuagint.

Much useful and interesting work might be done by following the lines of Dr Hatch's attempt to collect and compare the early evidence in reference to particular texts and constantly recurring extracts from the LXX.882882Essays, i. p. 129 ff. ("On Early Quotations from the Septuagint.") Perhaps however it would be expedient to limit such an investigation to post-apostolic Christian writers, and to carry it beyond Justin. Moreover, Dr Hatch's proposal to estimate the value of MSS., "according as they do or do not agree with such early quotations," seems to be at least precarious. It is conceivable and even probable that the peculiarities of early patristic quotations may be partly due to corruption incident upon the process of citing, whether from memory or from a MS.; and for various other reasons the text of a fourth century MS. may on the whole present a purer text than that which appears in a second century writing. This point, however, must be reserved for fuller consideration in a later chapter883883See Part III. c. vi..

 

11. With Origen the science of Christian Biblical criticism and hermeneutics may be said to have begun. In the Old Testament his interest was peculiarly strong; it supplied him with the amplest opportunities of exercising his skill in allegorical interpretation; and his knowledge both of the original and of the Greek versions prepared him to deal with the difficulties of his text. Unhappily there is no class of his writings which has suffered so severely. Of his great commentaries on the Old Testament, only fragments have survived; and the Homilies, with the exception of one on the Witch of Endor, and nineteen on the book of Jeremiah, have reached us only in the Latin translations of Rufinus and Jerome. But even fragments and versions of Origen are precious, and the following list of his O.T. remains884884They are collected in Migne, P. G. xi.—xvii. may be of service to the student of the LXX.

 

Genesis. Fragments of Commentary (t. i., iii.), and notes from catenae. Homilies (17) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Exodus. Fragments of Commentary, and notes. Homilies (13) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Leviticus. Fragments and notes from catenae. Homilies (16) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Numbers. Notes from catenae. Homilies (28) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Deuteronomy. Notes from catenae, &c. Joshua. Fragments and notes from catenae, &c. Homilies (26) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Judges. Notes from catenae. Homilies (9) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Ruth. A note on Ruth i. 4. 1—4 Kingdoms. Homily ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐγγαστριμύθου. Fragments. Homily in Latin on 1 Regn. i. ff. Psalms. Fragments of the Commentaries and Homilies; notes from catenae. Homilies (9) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus [on Pss. xxxvi.—xxxviii.). Proverbs. Fragments and notes, Greek and Latin. Ecclesiastes. Notes from catenae. Canticles. Fragments and notes. Homilies (2) in Latin, tr. by Jerome. Commentary (prol., tt. i.—iv.) in Latin, tr. by Rufinus. Job. Notes from catenae. Fragment of a Homily, in Latin. The xii. Prophets. Fragment on Hosea xii. (in Philocal. 8). Isaiah. Fragments (2) of the Commentaries, in Latin. Homilies (9) in Latin, tr. by Jerome. Jeremiah. Homilies (19) in Greek, and notes from catenae. Homilies (2) in Latin, tr. by Jerome. Lamentations. Notes from catenae. Ezekiel. Fragments, and notes from catenae. Homilies (14) in Latin, tr. by Jerome.

 

12. It is impossible within the limits of an Introduction to enumerate all the ecclesiastical writers who during the golden age of patristic literature quoted or commented upon the Greek Old Testament. But the student who is not a specialist in this field may be glad to have before him the names and dates of the principal Greek Fathers, with some notice of such of their extant works as are concerned with O.T. exegesis. The Roman numerals in brackets direct him to the volumes of Migne's Patrologia Graeca, in which the authors are to be found; in the case of a few writings which are not included in the Patrologia and some others, references are given to other editions.

 

Acacius of Caesarea, † 366. Fragments in catenae.

Ammonius of Alexandria, c. 460. Fragments on Genesis and Daniel. (lxxxv.)

Anastasius of Antioch, † 598. (lxxxix.)

Anastasius of Sinai, cent. vi.—vii. (lxxxix.)

Apollinarius of Laodicea (the younger), †c. 393. (xxxiii., cf. Dräseke's edition in Texte u. Unters. vii.)

Apostolical Constitutions, cent. iii.—iv. (ed. Lagarde).

Asterius of Amasea, c. 400. (xl.)

Athanasius of Alexandria, † 373. On the Psalms; Titles of the Psalms885885See, however, H. M. Gwatkin, Arianism, p. 69 n., fragments in the catenae. (xxv.—xxviii.)

Basil of Caesarea, †379. Homilies on the Hexaemeron, the Psalms and Isaiah i.—xvi. (xxix.—xxxii.)

Basil of Seleucia, c. 450. Homilies on the O.T. (lxxxv.)

Cosmas Indicopleustes, c. 550. (lxxxviii.)

Cyril of Alexandria, † 444. Works on the Pentateuch (περὶ τῆς ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ προσκυνήσεως, and γλαφυρά), comm. on Isaiah, comm. on the xii. Prophets; fragments on Kingdoms, Psalms, Proverbs, Canticles, and the minor Prophets. (lxviii.—lxxvii.)

Cyril of Jerusalem, † 386. (xxxiii.)

Didymus of Alexandria, † 395. Fragments on the Psalms and in the catenae. (xxxix.)

Diodorus of Tarsus, † c. 390. Fragments from the catenae. (xxxiii.)

Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite, cent. v. (iii.—iv.)

Dorotheus the Archimandrite, cent. vi.—vii. (lxxxviii.)

Ephraem the Syrian, † 373. Fragments of Commentaries on the Pentateuch, the historical and the poetical books. (Rome, 1732 ff.)

Epiphanius of Salamis, † 403. (xli.—xliii.)

Eusebius of Caesarea, † 339. Commentary on the Psalms; notes on Isaiah; fragments of other O.T. commentaries; books περὶ τῶν τοπικῶν ὀνομάτων τῶν ἐν τῇ θείᾳ γραφῇ and περὶ τῆς τοῦ βιβλίου τῶν προφητῶν ὀνομασίας.

Eusebius of Emesa, † 359. Fragments in the catenae of a comm. on Genesis. (lxxxvi.)

Eustathius of Antioch, † 337. On the Witch of Endor, ag. Origen. (xviii.)

Evagrius of Pontus, † 398. Fragments in catenae.

Gennadius of Constantinople, † 471. Fragments on Genesis, Exodus, the Psalms &c. (lxxxv.)

Gregory of Nazianzus, † 389. (xxxv.—xxxviii.)

Gregory of Neocaesarea, † c. 270. (x.)

Gregory of Nyssa, † 395. (xliv.—xlvi.)

Hesychius of Jerusalem, † c. 438. (xciii.)

Isidore of Pelusium, † c. 450. (lxxviii.)

John Chrysostom, † 407. Homilies on 1 Regn., Psalms (iii.—xii., xlviii.—xlix., cviii.—cxl.); a commentary on Isa. i.—viii. 11; various hands. (xlvii.—lxiv.)

John of Damascus, † c. 760. (xciv.—xcvi.)

Julianus of Halicarnassus, † 536. Fragments in catenae.

Macarius Magnes, cent. iv. (ed. Blondel).

Maximus Confessor, † 662. (xc.—xci.)

Methodius of Olympus, cent. iii.—iv. (xviii.)

Nilus of Sinai, † c. 430. (lxxix.)

Olympiodorus of Alexandria, † cent. vi. (xciii.)

Peter of Alexandria, † 311. (xviii.)

Philo of Carpasia, c. 380. Commentary on Canticles. (xl.)

Photius of Constantinople, † c. 891. (ci.—civ.)

Polychronius of Apamea, † 430. Fragments on the Pentateuch, Job, Proverbs, Canticles, and Daniel; comm. on Ezekiel.

Procopius of Gaza, cent. vi. Commentaries on Genesis—Judges, 1 Regn.—2 Chr., Prov., Cant., Isaiah. (lxxxvii.)

Severianus of Gabala, † c. 420. Fragments of commentaries in the catenae. (lxv.)

Severus of Antioch, † c. 539. Fragments in the catenae.

Theodore of Heraclea, † c. 355. Fragments of comm. on Isaiah. (xviii.)

Theodore of Mopsuestia,† 428. Fragments of commentaries on Genesis (Syriac and Latin), the rest of the Pentateuch and the historical books: comm. on the Psalms in Syriac and large fragments in Greek: a commentary on the xii. Prophets. (lxvi.)

Theodoret of Cyrrhus, † c. 458. Εἰς τὰ ἄπορα τῆς θείας γραφῆς, questions on the Pentateuch and historical books. Commentaries on the Psalms, Canticles, the xii. Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah (including Baruch and Lam.), Ezekiel, Daniel. (lxxx.—lxxxiv.)

Titus of Bostra, † c. 370. (xviii.)

Victor of Antioch, cent. v.—vi. (?).

 

LITERATURE. T. Ittig, De bibliothecis et catenis patrum (Leipzig, 1707). J. G. Walch, Bibliotheca patristica, ed. J. T. L. Danz (Jena, 1834). J. G. Dowling, Notitia Scriptorum ss. Patrum (Oxford, 1839). Oeconomus, vol. iv. (Athens, 1849). J. Nirschl, Lehrbuch der Patrologia u. Patristik (Mainz, 1881). O. Bardenhewer, Patrologie (Freiburg i. B., 1894). Fessler-Jungmann, Institutiones Patrologiae (1890). H. Hody, De textibus Bibliorum, p. 277 ff. Schleusner, Opuscula critica ad versionem Graecam V. T. pertinentia (Leipzig, 1812). Credner, Beiträge zur Einleitung in die biblischen Schriften, vol. ii. (Halle, 1834). R. Gregory, Prolegomena (de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis, p. 1131 ff.). Scrivener-Miller, ii. p. 167 ff. Hatch, Biblical Essays, p. 131 ff.


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