aA
aA
aA
aA
aA
aA
Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek. Additional Notes.
« Prev Chapter I. Titles, Grouping, Number, and Order of… Next »

CHAPTER I.

TITLES, GROUPING, NUMBER, AND ORDER OF THE BOOKS.

THE Greek Old Testament, as known to us through the few codices which contain it as a whole, and from the lists which appear in the Biblical MSS. or in ancient ecclesiastical writings, differs from the Hebrew Bible in regard to the titles of the books which are common to both, and the principle upon which the books are grouped. The two collections differ yet more materially in the number of the books, the Greek Bible containing several entire writings of which there is no vestige in the Hebrew canon, besides large additions to the contents of more than one of the Hebrew books. These differences are of much interest to the Biblical student, since they express a tradition which, inherited by the Church from the Alexandrian synagogue, has widely influenced Christian opinion upon the extent of the Old Testament Canon, and the character and purpose of the several books.

1. The following tables shew (A) the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin titles of the canonical books of the Old Testament; (B) the order and grouping of the books in (1) lists of Jewish origin, (2) the great uncial MSS. of the Greek Bible, (3) patristic and synodical lists of the (a) Eastern, (b) Western Church.

 

A. TITLES OF THE BOOKS.

 

Hebrew Transliteration428428As given by Origen ap. Eus. H. E. vi. 25. Septuagint Vulgate Latin
בְּרֵשִׁית Βρησίθ Γένεσις Genesis
וְאלֶּה שְׁמוֹת Οὐηλε σμώθ Ἔξοδος Exodus
וַיִקְרָא Οὐικρά Λευ[ε]ιτικόν Leviticus
וַיְדַבֵּר Ἅμμες φεκωδείμ429429I.e. חׂמֶשׁ פִּקּוּדִים 'fifth of the precepts'; cf. the Mishnic title פִּקּוּדִים סֵפֶר (Ryle, Canon of the O. T., p. 294). Jerome transliterates the initial word, vayedabber; cf. Epiph. (Lagarde, Symmicta ii. 178), οὐαϊδαβήρ ἥ ἐστιν Ἀριθμῶν. The book is also known as בְּטִדְבַּר. Ἀριθμοί Numeri
אֵלֵּה הַדְּבָרִים Ἔλε ἁδδεβαρείμ Δευτερονόμιον Deuteronomium
יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Ἰωσοῦε βὲν Νούν Ἰησοῦς Iosue
שׁוֹפְטִים Σαφατείμ Κριταί Iudices
שְׁמוּאֵל Σαμουήλ Βασιλειῶν{ αʹ, βʹ
γʹ, δʹ
Regum{ 1, 2
3, 4
מְלַכִים Οὐαμμὲλχ Δαβίδ430430I.e. וִהַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד, (first two words of 1 Kings i.), Malachim, Jerome; δμαλαχείμ, Epiphanius.  
יְשַׁעְיָה ,יְשַׁעְיָהוּ Ἰεσσιά Ἠσαίας Isaias
יִרְמְיָה ,יִרְמְיָהוּ Ἰερεμιά Ἰερεμίας Ieremias
יְחֶזַקֵאל Ἰεζεκιήλ Ἰεζεκιήλ Ezechiel
הוֹשֵׁעַ Ὡσῆε Osee
יוֹאֵל Ἰωήλ Ioel
עָמוֹס Ἀμώς Amos
עֹבַדְיָה Ὀβδειού, Ἀβδ[ε]ιού Abdias
יוֹנָה   Ἰωνᾶς Ionas
מִיכָה Μ[ε]ιχαίας Michaeas
נָחוּם ,נַחוּם Ναούμ Nahum
חֲבַקּוּק Ἁμβακούμ Habacuc
צְפַנְיָה Σοφονίας Sophonias
חַגַּי Ἁγγαῖος Aggaeus
זְכַרְיָה Ζαχαρίας Zacharias
מַלְאָכִי Μαλαχίας Malachias
תְּהִלִּים Σφὰρ θελλείμ Ψαλμοί, Ψαλτήριον Psalmi
מִשְׁלֵי Μελώθ431431With variants Μεσλώθ, Μισλώθ (leg. for. Μσλώθ). Masaloth, Jerome; δμεθαλώθ, Epiphanius. Παροιμίαι Proverbia
אִיּוֹב Ἰώβ Ἰώβ Iob
שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים Σὶρ ἁσσιρίμ ᾼσμα, ᾄσματα [ᾀσμάτων] Canticum canticorum
רוּת432432Origen includes Ruth with Judges under Σαφατείμ.   Ῥούθ Ruth
אֵיכָה433433Epiph. l.c.: ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἄλλη μικρὰ βίβλος ἣ καλεῖται Κινώθ [Mishn. קִינוֹת], ἥτις ἑρμηνεύεται Θρῆνος Ἰερεμίου.   Θρῆνοι Threni, Lamentationes
קֹהֶלֶת Κωέλθ Ἐκκλησιαστής Ecclesiastes
אֶסְתֵּר Ἐσθήρ Ἐσθήρ Esther
דָּנִיֵּאל Δανιήλ Δανιήλ Daniel
צֶזְרָא Ἐζρά Ἔσδρας Esdras 1, 2
דִּבְרֵי־הַיָמִים Δαβρὴ ἰαμείν Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ Paralipomenon 1, 2

 

B (1). ORDER OF THE BOOKS IN JEWISH LISTS434434This list has been adapted from Ryle, Canon of the O.T. (table following p. 280)..

 

TALMUDIC SPANISH MSS. GERMAN & FRENCH MSS. MASSORETIC MSS. PRINTED BIBLES
I Torah " " " "
II Nebiim " " " "
Joshua Joshua Joshua Joshua Joshua
Judges Judges Judges Judges Judges
Samuel Samuel Samuel Samuel 1, 2 Samuel
Kings Kings Kings Kings 1, 2 Kings
Jeremiah Isaiah Jeremiah Isaiah Isaiah
Ezekiel Jeremiah Isaiah Jeremiah Jeremiah
Isaiah Ezekiel Ezekiel Ezekiel Ezekiel
xii Prophets xii Prophets xii Prophets xii Prophets Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zachariah
Malachi
III Kethubim " " " "
Ruth Chronicles Psalms Chronicles Psalms
Psalms Psalms Proverbs Psalms Proverbs
Job Job Job Job Job
Proverbs Proverbs Song of Songs Proverbs Song of Songs
Ecclesiastes Ruth Ruth Ruth Ruth
Song of Songs Song of Songs Lamentations Song of Songs Lamentations
Lamentations Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes
Daniel Lamentations Esther Lamentations Esther
Esther Esther Daniel Esther Daniel
Ezra-Neh. Daniel Ezra-Neh. Daniel Ezra-Neh.
Chronicles Ezra-Neh. Chronicles Ezra-Neh. 1, 2 Chronicles

 

B (2). ORDER OF THE BOOKS IN UNCIAL MS. BIBLES.

 

Codex Vaticanus (B) Codex sinaiticus (א)
Γένεσις Γένεσις
Ἔξοδος *
Λευειτικόν *
Ἀριθμοί Ἀριθμοί
Δευτερονόμιον *
Ἰησοῦς *
Κριταί *
Ῥούθ *
Βασιλειῶν αʹ—δʹ *
Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ Παραλειπομένων αʹ, [βʹ]
Ἔσδρας αʹ, βʹ Ἔσδρας [αʹ], βʹ
Ψαλμοί Ἐσθήρ
Παροιμίαι Τωβείθ
Ἐκκλησιαστής Ἰουδείθ
ᾎσμα Μακκαβαίων αʹ, δʹ
Ἰώβ Ἠσαίας
Σοφία Σαλωμῶνος Ἰερεμίας
Σοφία Σειράχ Θρῆνοι Ἰερεμίου
Ἐσθήρ *
Ἰουδείθ *
Τωβείτ *
Ὡσῆε *
Ἀμώς *
Μειχαίας *
Ἰωήλ Ἰωήλ
Ὀβδειού Ἀβδειού
Ἰωνᾶς Ἰωνᾶς
Ναούμ Ναούμ
Ἁμβακούμ Ἁμβακούμ
Σοφονίας Σοφονίας
Ἁγγαῖος Ἁγγαῖος
Ζαχαρίας Ζαχαρίας
Μαλαχίας Μαλαχίας
Ἠσαίας Ψαλμοὶ Δᾱδ ρναʹ (subscr.)
Ἰερεμίας Παροιμίαι [+ Σολομῶντος subscr.]
Βαρούχ Ἐκκλησιαστής
Θρῆνοι ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων
Ἐπιστολὴ Ἰερεμίου Σοφία Σαλομῶντος
Ἰεζεκιήλ Σοφία Ἰησοῦ υἱοῦ Σειράχ
Δανιήλ Ἰώβ

 

Codex Alexandrinus (A) Codex Basiliano-Venetus (N+V)
Γένεσις κόσμου *
Ἔξοδος Αἰγύπτου *
Λευειτικόν (N) Λευιτικόν
Ἀριθμοί   Ἀριθμοί
Δευτερονόμιον   Δευτερονόμιον
Ἰησοῦς υἱὸς Ναυή   Ἰησοῦς
Κριταί   Ῥούθ
Ῥούθ [ὁμοῦ βιβλία ηʹ]   Κριταί
Βασιλειῶν αʹ—δʹ   Βασιλειῶν αʹ—δʹ
Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ [ὁμοῦ βιβλία ςʹ]   Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ
Προφῆται ιςʹ   Ἔσδρας [αʹ], βʹ
Ὡσῆε α   Ἐσθήρ
Ἀμώς βʹ   *
Μιχαίας γʹ   *
Ἰωήλ δʹ   *
Ἀβδειού εʹ (V) Ἰώβ (subscr.)
Ἰωνᾶς ςʹ   Παροιμίαι
Ναούμ ζʹ   Ἐκκλησιαστής
Ἁμβαούμ ηʹ   ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων
Σοφονίας θʹ   Σοφία Σολομῶντος
Ζαχαρίας ιαʹ   Ὡσῆε
Μαλαχίας ιβʹ   Ἀμώς
Ἠσαίας προφήτης ιγʹ   Ἰωήλ
Ιερεμίας προφήτης ιδʹ   Ἀβδιού
Βαρούχ   Ἰωνᾶς
Θρῆνος [+ Ἰερεμίου, subscr.]   Μιχαίας
Ἐπιστολὴ Ἰερεμίου   Ναούμ
Ἰεζεκιὴλ προφήτης ιεʹ   Ἁμβακούμ
Δανιήλ [+ προφήτης ιςʹ, catal.]   Σοφονίας
Ἐσθήρ   Ἁγγαῖος
Τωβίτ (Τωβείτ, subscr.)   Ζαχαρίας
Ἰουδείθ   Μαλαχίας
Ἔζρας αʹ ὁ ἱερεύς (Ἔσζρας αʹ ἱερεύς, catal.)   Ἡσαίας
Ἰερεμίας
Ἔζρας βʹ ἱερεύς (Ἔσζρας βʹ ἱερεύς catal.)   Βαρούχ
Θρῆνοι
Μακκαβαίων αʹ—δʹ   Ἰεζεκιήλ
Ψαλτήριον (Ψαλμοὶ ῥνʹ καὶ ἰδιόγραφος αʹsubscr., seq. ᾠδαὶ ιδʹ. Ψαλτήριον μετ᾿ ᾠδῶν catal.)   Δανιήλ
Τωβίτ
Ἰουδίθ
Ἰώβ   Μακκαβαίων αʹ—δʹ
Παροιμίαι Σολομῶντος    
Ἐκκλησιαστής    
ᾌσματα (ᾎσμα subscr.) ᾀσμάτων    
Σοφία Σολομῶντος (Σ. Σολομῶνος subscr.; + ἢ Πανάρετος, catal.)    
Σοφία Ἰησοῦ υἱοῦ Σιράχ (Σειράχ, subscr.)    
Ψαλμοὶ Σολομῶντος, catal.    

 

B (3) (a). ORDER OF THE BOOKS IN PATRISTIC AND SYNODICAL LISTS OF THE EASTERN CHURCH.

 

1. Melito (ap. Eus. H.E. iv. 26). 2. Origen (ap. Eus. H.E. vi. 25).
Μωυσέως πέντε Γένεσις
Γένεσις Ἔξοδος
Ἔξοδος Λευιτικόν
Ἀριθμοί Ἀριθμοί
Λευιτικόν Δευτερονόμιον
Δευτερονόμιον Ἰησοῦς υἰὸς Ναυή
Ἰησοῦς Ναυή Κριταί
Κριταί Ῥούθ
Ῥούθ Βασιλειῶν αʹ—δʹ
Βασιλειῶν τέσσαρα Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ
Παραλειπομένων δύο Ἔσδρας αʹ, βʹ
Ψαλμῶν Δαβίδ Βίβλος Ψαλμῶν
Σαλομῶνος Παροιμίαι, ἣ καὶ Σοφία435435Cf. Eus. H.E. iv. 22 ὁ πᾶς τῶν ἀρχαίων χορὸς Πανάρετον Σοφίαν τὰς Σολομῶνος παροιμίας ἐκάλουν. Σολομῶντος Παροιμίαι
Ἐκκλησιαστής Ἐκκλησιαστής
ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων
Ἰώβ Ἠσαίας
Προφητῶν Ἰερεμίας σὺν Θρήνοις καὶ τῇ Ἐπιστολῇ ἐν ἑνί
Ἠσαίου
Ἰερεμίου Δανιήλ
Τῶν δώδεκα ἐν μονοβίβλῳ Ἰεζεκιήλ
Δανιήλ Ἰώβ
Ἰεζεκιήλ Ἐσθήρ
Ἔσδρας Ἔξω δὲ τούτων ἐστὶ
  Τὰ Μακκαβαϊκά

 

3. Athanasius (ep. fest. 39, Migne, P.G. xxvi. 1436). 4. Cyril of Jerusalem (Catech. iv. 35).
Γένεσις Αἱ Μωσέως πρῶται πέντε βίβλοι
Ἔξοδος Γένεσις
Λευιτικόν Ἔξοδος
Ἀριθμοί Λευιτικόν
Δευτερονόμιον Ἀριθμοί
Ἰησοῦς ὁ τοῦ Ναυή Δευτερονόμιον
Κριταί Ἑξῆς δέ
Ῥούθ Ἰησοῦ υἱοῦ Ναυή
Βασιλειῶν τέσσαρα βιβλία

Τῶν Κριτῶν βιβλίον μετὰ τῆς Ῥούθ

Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ Τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν ἱστορικῶν βιβλίων
Ἔσδρας αʹ, βʹ Βασιλειῶν αʹ—δʹ
Βίβλος Ψαλμῶν Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ
Παροιμίαι Τοῦ Ἔσδρα αʹ, βʹ
Ἐκκλησιαστής Ἐσθήρ (δωδεκάτη)

 

ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων Τά δὲ στιχηρὰ τύγχανει πέντε
Ἰώβ Ἰώβ
Προφῆται Βίβλος Ψαλμῶν
Οἱ δώδεκα Παροιμίαι
Ἠσαίας Ἐκκλησιαστής

Ἰερεμίας καὶ σὺν αὐτῷ Βαρούχ, Θρῆνοι, Ἐπιστολή

ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων (ἑπτακαιδέκατον βιβλίον)

Ἰεζεκιήλ Ἐπὶ δὲ τούτοις τὰ προφητικὰ πέντε
Δανιήλ

Τῶν δώδεκα προφητῶν μία βίβλος

Ἔστι καὶ ἕτερα βιβλία τούτων ἔξωθεν,

Ἠσαίου μία

οὐ κανονιζόμενα μὲν τετυπωμένα δὲ

Ἰερεμίου [μία] μετὰ Βαροὺχ καὶ

παρὰ τῶν πετέρων ἀναγινώσκεσθαι

Θρήνων καὶ Ἐπιστολῆς

τοῖς ἄρτι προσερχομένοις . . .

Ἰεζεκιήλ
Σοφία Σολομῶντος

Δανιὴλ (εἰκοστὴ δευτέρα βίβλος)

Σοφία Σιράχ Τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ πάντα ἔξω κείσθω ἐν δευτέρῳ
Ἐσθήρ
Ἰουδίθ
Τωβίας

 

5a. Epiphanius (haer. 1. i. 6). 5b. Epiphanius (de mens. et pond. 4).
αʹ. Γένεσις

Πέντε νομικαί ἡ πεντάτευχος ἣ καὶ νομοθεσία)

βʹ. Ἔξοδος
γʹ. Λευιτικόν (Γένεσις—Δευτερονόμηον)
δʹ. Ἀριθμοί Πέντε στιχήρεις
εʹ. Δευτερονόμιον

(Ἰώβ, Ψαλτήριον, Παροιμίαι Σαλομῶντος, Ἐκκλησιαστής, ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων)

ςʹ. Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ναυή
ζʹ. Τῶν Κριτῶν
ηʹ. Τῆς Ῥούθ

Ἄλλη πεντάτευχος, τὰ καλούμενα Γραφεῖα, παρά τισι δὲ Ἁγιόγραφα λεγόμενα (Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ναυή, βίβλος Κριτῶν μετὰ τῆς Ῥούθ, Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ, Βασιλειῶν αʹ, βʹ, Βασιλειῶν γʹ, δʹ)

θʹ. Τοῦ Ἰώβ
ιʹ. Τὸ Ψαλτήριον
ιαʹ. Παροιμίαι Τολομῶντος
ιβʹ. Ἐκκλησιαστής
ιγʹ. Τὸ ᾎσμα τῶν ᾀσμάτων
ιδʹ–ιζʹ. Βασιλειῶν αʹ—δʹ

Ἡ προφητικὴ πεντάτευχος (τὸ δωδεκαπρόφητον, Ἠσαίας, Ἰερεμίας, Ἰεζεκιήλ, Δανιήλ)

ιηʹ, ιθʹ. Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ
κʹ. Τὸ Δωδεκαπρόφητον
καʹ. Ἠσαίας ὁ προφήτης

Ἄλλαι δύο (τοῦ Ἔσδρα δύο, μία λογιζομένη, τῆς Ἐσθήρ)

κβʹ. Ἰερεμίας ὁ προφήτης, μετὰ τῶν Θρήνων καὶ Ἐπιστολῶν αὐτοῦ τε καὶ Βαρούχ


Ἡ τοῦ Σολομῶντος ἡ Πανάρετος
κγʹ. Ἰεζεκιήλ ὁ προφήτης λεγομένη
κδʹ. Δανιὴλ ὁ προφήτης Ἡ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ υἰοῦ Σειράχ
κεʹ, κςʹ. Ἔσδρα αʹ, βʹ
κζʹ. Ἐσθήρ

Ἡ Σοφία τοῦ Σιράχ
Ἡ [Σοφία] τοῦ Σολομῶντος

 

5c. Epiphanius (de mens. et pond. 23). 6. Gregory of Nazianzus (carm. 1. xii. 5 ff.).
Γένεσις κόσμου Βίβλοι ἱστορικαὶ ιβʹ

Ἔξοδος τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐξ Αἰγύπτου

(Γένεσις, Ἔξοδος, Λευιτικόν, Ἀριθμοί, Δεύτερος νόμος, Ἰησοῦς Κριταί, Ῥούθ, Πράξεις βασιλήων, Παραλειπόμεναι, Ἔσδρας)

Λευιτικόν
Ἀριθμῶν
Τὸ Δευτερονόμιον
Ἡ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ναυή Βίβλοι στιχηραὶ εʹ
Ἡ τοῦ Ἰώβ

(Ἰώβ, Δαυίδ, τρεῖς Σολομωντίαι, Ἐκκλησιαστής, ᾎσμα, Παροιμίαι)

Ἡ τῶν Κριτῶν
Ἡ τῆς Ῥούθ
Τὸ Ψαλτήριον Βίβλοι προφητικαὶ εʹ
Τῶν Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ

(Οἱ δώδεκα—Ὡσῆε, Ἀμώς, Μιχαίας, Ἰωήλ, Ἰωνᾶς, Ἀβδίας, Ναούμ, Ἁββακούμ, Σοφονίας, Ἁaγγῖος, Ζαχαρίας, Μαλαχίας—Ἡσαίας, Ἰερεμίας, Ἐζεκιήλ, Δανιῆλος)

Βασιλειῶν αʹ—δʹ
Ἡ Παροιμιῶν
Ὁ Ἐκκλησιαστής
Τὸ ᾎσμα τῶν ᾀσμάτων
Τὸ Δωδεκαπρόφητον
Τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαίου
Τοῦ Ἰερεμίου
Τοῦ Ἰεζεκιήλ
Τοῦ Δανιήλ
Τοῦ Ἔσδρα αʹ, βʹ
Τῆς Ἐσθήρ

 

7. Amphilochius (ad Seleuc. ap. Greg. Naz. carm. 11. vii. Migne, P.G. xxxvii. 1593). 8. Pseudo-chrysostom (syn. script. sacr. praef.). Migne, P.G. lvi. 513 sqq.
Ἡ πεντάτευχος Τό ἱστορικόν, ὡς

(Κτίσις, Ἔξοδος, Λευιτικόν, Ἀριθμοί, Δευτερονόμιον)

Ἡ Γένεσις (ἡ ὀκτάτευχος)
Ἡ Ἔξοδος
Ἰησοῦς Τὸ Λευιτικόν
Οἱ Κριταί Οἱ Ἀριθμοί
Ἡ Ῥούθ

Τό Δευτερονόμιον

Βασιλειῶν αʹ—δʹ Ἰησοῦς ὁ τοῦ Ναυή
Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ Οἱ Κριταί
Ἔσδρας αʹ, βʹ Ῥούθ
Στιχηραί βίβλοι εʹ Αἱ Βασιλεῖαι αʹ—δʹ

(Ἰώβ, Ψαλμοί, τρεῖς Σολομῶντος—Παροιμίαι, Ἐκκλησιαστής, ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων)

Ἔσδρας
Τὸ συμβουλευτικόν, ὡς
Αἱ Παροιμίαι
Προφῆται οἱ δώδοκα Ἡ τοῦ Σιρὰχ Σοφία

(Ὡσῆε, Ἀμώς, Μιχαίας, Ἰωήλ, Ἀβδίας, Ἰωνᾶς, Ναούμ, Ἁμβακούμ, Σοφονίας, Ἁγγαῖος, Ζαχαρίας, Μαλαχίας

Ὁ Ἐκκλησιαστής
Τὰ ᾌσματα τῶν ᾀσμάτων
Τὸ προφητικόν, ὡς
Οἱ δεκαὲξ προφηταί
Προφῆται οἱ τέσσαρες Ῥούθ (?)

(Ἠσαίας, Ἰερεμίας, Ἰεζεκιήλ, Δανιήλ)

Δαυείδ

Τούτοις προσεγρκίνουρι τὴν Ἐσθήρ τινες

 

 

9. Σύνοψις ἐν ἐπιτόμῳ ap. Lagarde, Septuagintast., ii. p. 60 f.436436Lagarde, l.c.: "ich widerhole sie, von mir redigiert." 10. Anonymi dial. Timothei et Aquilae.
αʹ. Γένεσις Ἡ Μωσαικὴ πεντάτευχος
Τὰ Μωσαϊκά βʹ. Ἔξοδος
αʹ. Γένεσις γʹ. Τὸ Λευιτικόν
βʹ. Ἔξοδος δʹ. Οἱ Ἀριθμοί
γʹ. Λευιτικόν

εʹ. Τὸ Δευτερονόμιον

δʹ. Ἀριθμοί ςʹ. Ὁ τοῦ Ναυή
εʹ. Δευτερονόμιον ζʹ. Οἱ Κροταί, μετὰ τῆ Ῥούθ
Τὰ ἕτερα ηʹ. Τὰ Παραλειπόμενα αʹ, βʹ
ςʹ. Ἰησοῦς ὁ τοῦ Ναυή θʹ. Τῶν βασιλειῶν αʹ, βʹ
ζʹ. Κριταί ιʹ. Τῶν βασιλειῶν γʹ, δʹ
ηηʹ. Ῥούθ ιαʹ. Ἰώβ
Τέλος τῆς ὀκτατεύχου ιβʹ. Τὸ Ψαλτήριον τοῦ Δαυίδ
Τὸ τετραβασίλειον ιγʹ. Αἱ Παροιμίαι Τολομῶντος
θʹ. Βασιλειῶν αʹ ιδʹ. Ὁ Ἐκκλησιαστής, σὺν τοῖς ᾌσμασιν
ιʹ. Βασιλειῶν βʹ.
ιαʹ. Βασιλειῶν γʹ

ιεʹ. Τὸ δωδεκαπρόφητον· Ἠσαίας, Ἰερεμίας, Ἰεζεκιήλ, Δανιήλ, Ἔσδρας

ιβʹ. Βασιλειῶν δʹ
ιγʹ. Παραλειπόμενα αʹ
ιδʹ. Παραλειπόμενα βʹ καʹ. Ἰουδίθ
ιεʹ. Ἔσδρα αʹ κβʹ. Ἐσθήρ
ιςʹ. Ἔσδρα βʹ Ἀπόκρυφα
ιζʹ. Ἐσθήρ Τοβίας
ιηʹ. Τωβίτ Ἡ Σοφία Σολομῶντος
ιθʹ. Ἰουδήθ Ἡ Σοφία Ἰησοῦ υἱοῦ Σιράχ
κʹ. Ἰώβ
Τοῦσολομῶντος
καʹ. Σοφία
κβʹ. Παροιμίαι
κγʹ. Ἐκκλησιαστής
κδʹ. ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων
Οἱ ιβʹ προφῆται
κεʹ. Ὠσηέ
κςʹ. Ἀμώς
κζʹ. Μιχαίας
κηʹ. Ἰωιλ
κθʹ. Ἀβδιού
λʹ. Ἰωνᾶς
λαʹ. Ναούμ
λβʹ. Ἁββακούμ
λγʹ. Σοφονίας
λδʹ. Ἀγγαῖος
λεʹ. Ζαχαρίας
λςʹ. Μαλαχίας
Οἱ δʹ μεaάλοι προφῆται
λζʹ. Ἡσαΐας
ληʹ. Ἱερεμίας
λθʹ. Ἱεζεκιήλ
μʹ. Δανιήλ

Τέλος τῶν ἓξ καὶ δέκα προφητῶν

μαʹ. Σοφία Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Σιράχ

 

11. Junilius de inst. reg. div. legis i. 3 ff. (ed. Kihn). 12. Pseudo-Athanasii syn. scr. sacr. (Migne, P.G. xxviii. 283 ff.)
Historia (xvii) Γένεσις
Genesis Ἔξοδος
Exodus Λευιτικόν
Leviticus Ἀριθμοί
Numeri Δευτερονόμιον
Deuteronomium Ἰησοῦς ὁ τοῦ Ναυή
Iesu Nave Κριταί
Iudicum Ῥούθ
Ruth Βασιλειῶν αʹ, βʹ
Regnn. i—iv Βασιλειῶν γʹ, δʹ

[Adiungunt plures Paralipomenon ii, Iob i, Tobiae i. Esdrae ii, Iudith i, Hester i, Macchabaeorum ii]

Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ
Ἔσδρας αʹ, βʹ
Ψαλτήριον Δαβιτικόν
Παροιμίαι Σολομῶντος
Prophetia (xvii) Ἐκκλησιαστὴς τοῦ αὐτοῦ
Psalmorum cl ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων
Osee Ἰώβ
Esaiae Προφῆται δώδεκα εἰς ἓν ἀριθμούμενοι
Ioel

Ὡσῆε, Ἀμώς, Μιχαίας, Ἰωήλ, Ἀβδιού, Ἰωνᾶς, Ναούμ, Ἁμβακούμ, Σοφωνίας, Ἁγγαῖος, Ζαχαρίας, Μαλαχίας

Amos
Abdiae
Ionae
Michaeae Ἑξῆς δὲ ἕτεροι τέσσαρες
Naum Ἠσαίας
Habacuc Ἰερεμίας
Sophoniae Ἐζεκιήλ
Hieremiae Δανιήλ
Ezechiel

Ἐκτὸς δὲ τούτων εἰσὶ πὰλιν ἕτερα βιβλία κ.τ.λ. (as in Athanasius, but adding

Daniel
Aggaei
Zachariae Μακκαβάϊκα βιβλία δʹ
Malachiea Πτολεμαϊκά
Proverbia (ii)

Ψαλμοὶ καὶ ᾠδὴ Σολομῶντος Σωσάννα)

Salomonis Proverbiorum
Iesu filii Sirach

[Adiungunt quidam libr. Sapientiae et Cantica Canticorum]

Dogmatica (i)
Ecclesiastes

 

13. Leontius (de Sectis ii.) 14. John of Damascus (de fide orthod. iv. 17).
Τὰ ἱστορικὰ βιβλία (ιβʹ)

Πρώτη πεντάτευχος, ἣ καὶ νομοθεσία

(Γένεσις Ἔξοδος, Ἀριθμοί, Λευιτικόν, Δευτερονόμιον· Ἰησοῦς τοῦ Ναυή, Κριταί, Ῥούθ, Λόγοι τῶν βασιλειῶν αʹ—δʹ, Παραλειπόμεναι, Ἔσδρας)

(Γένεσις Ἔξοδος, Λευιτικόν, Ἀριθμοί, Δευτερονόμιον)

Δευτέρα πεντάτευχος, τὰ καλούμενα Γραφεῖα, παρά τισι δὲ Ἁγιόγραφα (Ἰησοῦς ὁ τοῦ Ναυή, Κριταὶ μετὰ

Τὰ προφητικά (εʹ)

τῆς Ῥούθ, Βασιλειῶν αʹ, βʹ, Βασιλειῶν γʹ, δʹ, τῶν Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ)

(Ἠσαίας, Ἰερεμίας, Ἰεζεκιήλ, Δανιήλ, τὸ Δωδεκαπρόφητον)

Τὰ παραινετικά (δʹ)

Τρίτη πεντάτευχος, αἱ στιχηραὶ βίβλοι

(Ἰώβ, Παροιμίαι Σολομῶντος, Ἐκκλησιαστής, τὸ ᾎσμα τῶν ᾀσμάτων, τὸ Ψαλτήριον)

(τοῦ Ἰώβ, τὸ Ψαλτήριον, Παροιμίαι Σολομῶντος, Ἐκκλησιαστής, τοῦ αὐτοῦ, τὰ ᾌσμετα τῶν ᾈσμάτων τοῦ αὐτοῦ)

Τετάρτη πεντάτευχος ἡ προφητική (τὸ Δωδεκαπόφητον, Ἠσαίας, Ἰερεμίας, Ἰεζεκιήλ, Δανιήλ)

Ἄλλαι δύο

(τοῦ Εσδρα αʹ, βʹ, ἡ Ἐσθήρ)

Ἡ Πανάρετος τ. ἐ. ἡ Σοφία τοῦ Σολομῶντος

Ἡ Σοφία τοῦ Ἰησοῦ

 

 

  16. Ebedjesu (catal. libr. Eccl., Assemani, Bibl. Or. iii. 5 f.).
15. Nicephorus, Stichometria. Genesis

Α. Ὅσαι εἰσὶ γραφαὶ ἐκκλησιαζόμεναι καὶ κεκανονισμέναι

Exodus
Liber sacerdotum
αʹ. Γένεσις στίχ. ͵δτʹ Numeri
βʹ. Ἔξοδος στίχ. ͵βωʹ Deuteronomii
γʹ. Λευιτικόν στίχ. ͵βψʹ Josue filii Nun
δʹ. Ἀριθμοί στίχ. ͵γφλʹ Iudicum
εʹ. Δευτερονόμιον στίχ. ͵γρʹ Samuel
ςʹ. Ἰησοῦς στίχ. ͵βρʹ Regum
ζʹ. Κριταὶ καὶ Ῥούθ στίχ. ͵βυνʹ Liber Dabariamin
ηʹ. Βασιλειῶν αʹ, βʹ στίχ. ͵βσμʹ Ruth
θʹ. Βασιλειῶν γʹ, δʹ στιχ. ͵βσγʹ Psalmi David Regis
ιʹ Παραλειπόμενα αʹ, βʹ στιχ. ͵εφʹ Proverbia Salomonis
ιαʹ. Ἔσδρας αʹ, βʹ στιχ. ͵εφʹ Cohelet
ιβʹ. Βίβλος Ψαλμῶν στίχ. ͵εφʹ Sirat Sirin

ιγʹ. Παροιμίαι Τολομῶντος στίχ. ͵αψʹ

Bar-Sira
Sapientia Magna
ιδʹ. Ἐκκλησιαστής στίχ. ψνʹ Iob
ιεʹ. ᾎσμ ᾀσμάτων στίχ. σπʹ Isaias
ιςʹ. Ἰώβ στίχ. ͵αωʹ Hosee
ιζʹ. Ἠσαίας προφήτης στίχ. ͵γωʹ Ioel
ιηʹ. Ἰερεμίας προφήτης στίχ. ͵δʹ Amos
ιθʹ. Βαρούχ στίχ. ψʹ Abdias
κʹ. Ἰεζεκιήλ στίχ. ͵δʹ Ionas
καʹ. Δανιήλ στίχ. ͵βʹ Michaeas
κβʹ. Οἱ δώδεκα προφῆται στίχ. ͵γʹ Nahum

Ὁμοῦ τῆς παλαιᾶς διαθήκης βίβλοι κβʹ.

Habacuc
Sophonias

 

Β. Ὅσαι ἀντιλέγονται καὶ οὐκ ἐκκλησιάζονται

Aggaeus
Zacharias

αʹ. Μακκαβαϊκὰ γʹ στίχ. ͵ζτʹ

Malachias

βʹ. Σοφία Σολομῶντος στίχ. ͵αρʹ

Hieremias

γʹ. Σοφία υἱοῦ τοῦ Σιρὰχ στίχ. ͵βωʹ

Ezechiel
Daniel

δʹ. Ψαλμοὶ καὶ ᾠδαὶ Σολομῶντος στίχ. ͵βρʹ

Iudith
Esther
εʹ. Ἐσθὴρ στίχ. τνʹ Susanna
ςʹ. Ἰουδὶθ στίχ. ͵αψʹ Esdras
ζʹ. Σωσάννα στίχ. φʹ Daniel Minor

η͵. Τωβίτ, ὁ καὶ Τωβίας στίχ. ψʹ

Epistola Baruch
Liber traditionis Seniorum
Josephi proverbia
Historia filiorum Samonae [i.e. Maccab. iv]
Liber Maccabaeorum (i—iii)

 

17. Laodicene Canons (lx.). 18. Apostolic Canons (lxxxiv.).
αʹ. Γένεσις κόσμου Μωυσέως πέντε
βʹ. Ἔξοδος ἐξ Αἰγύπτου

(Γένεσις, Ἔξοδος, Λευιτικόν, Ἀριθμοί, Δευτερονόμιον)

γʹ. Λευιτικόν
δʹ. Ἀριθμοί Ἰησοῦς Ναυή
εʹ. Δευτερονόμιον Ῥούθ
ςʹ. Ἰησοῦς Ναυή Βασιλειῶν τέσσαρα
ζʹ. Κριταί, Ῥούθ Παραλειπομένων δύο
ηʹ. Ἐσθήρ Ἔσδρα δύο
θʹ. Βασιλειῶν αʹ, βʹ Ἐσθήρ
ιʹ. Βασιλειῶν γʹ, δʹ Μακκαβαίων τρία
ιαʹ. Παραλειπομένων αʹ, βʹ Ἰώβ
ιβʹ. Ἔσδρας αʹ, βʹ Ψαλτήριον
ιγʹ. Βίβλος Ψαλμῶν ρνʹ Σολομῶντος τρία
ιδʹ. Παροιμίαι Σολομῶντος

(Παροιμίαι, Ἐκκλησιαστής, ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων)

ιεʹ. Ἐκκλησιαστης
ιςʹ. ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων Προφητῶν δεκάδυο ἕν
ιζʹ. Ἰώβ Ἠσαίου ἕν
ιηʹ. Δώδεκα προφῆται Ἰερεμίου ἕν
ιθʹ. Ἠσαίας Ἰεζεκιήλ ἕν

κʹ. Ἰερεμίας καὶ Βαρούχ, Θρῆνοι καὶ Ἐπιστολαί

Δανιὴλ ἕν

Ἔξωθεν δὲ προσιστορείσθω μανθάνειν ὑμῶν τοὺς νέους τὴν Σοφίαν τοῦ πολυμαθοῦς Σιράχ

καʹ. Ἰεζεκιήλ
κβʹ. Δαωιήλ  

 

 

19. List in Codd. Barocc. 206; B.M. Add. 17469; Coisl. 120.

Περὶ τῶν ξʹ βιβλίων, καὶ ὅσα τούτων ἐκτός

εʹ. Δευτερονόμιον
ςʹ. Ἰησοῦς
αʹ. Γένεσις ζʹ. Κριταὶ καὶ Ῥούθ
βʹ. Ἔξοδος ηʹ—αʹ. Βασιλειῶν αʹ—δʹ
γʹ. Λευιτικόν ιβʹ. Παραλειπόμενα αʹ, βʹ
δʹ. Ἀριθμοί ιγʹ. Ἰώβ
ιδʹ. Ψαλτήριον κθʹ. Ζαχαρίας
ιεʹ. Παροιμίαι λʹ. Μαλαχίας
ιςʹ. Ἐκκλησιαστής λαʹ. Ἠσαίας
ιζʹ. ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων λβʹ. Ἰερεμίας
ιηʹ. Ἔσδρας λγʹ. Ἰεζεκιήλ
ιθʹ. Ὡσῆε λδʹ. Δανιήλ437437The B.M. MS. counts Ruth as a separate book and after Daniel places the numeral λεʹ.
κʹ. Ἀμώς *         *
καʹ. Μιχαίας *         *
κβʹ. Ἰωήλ Καὶ ὅσα ἔξω τῶν ξʹ
κγʹ. Ἰωνᾶς αʹ. Σοφία Σολομῶντος
κδʹ. Ἀβδιού βʹ. Σοφία Σιράχ
κεʹ. Ναούμ γʹ—ςʹ. Μακκαβαίων [αʹ—δʹ]
κςʹ. Ἁμβακούμ ζʹ. Ἐσθήρ
κζʹ. Σοφονίας ηʹ. Ἰουδήθ
κηʹ. Ἁγγαῖος θʹ. Τωβίτ

 

B (3) (b). ORDER OF THE BOOKS IN PATRISTIC AND SYNODICAL LISTS OF THE WESTERN CHURCH.

 

1. Hilary, prol. in libr. Psalm. 2. Ruffinus (Comm. in symb. 36).
i—v. Moysi[s] libri quinque Moysi[s] quinque libri
vi. Iesu Naue

(Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numeri, Deuteronomium)

vii. Iudicum et Ruth
viii. Regnorum i, ii Iesus Naue
ix. Regnorum iii, iv Iudicum, simul cum Ruth
x. Paralipomenon i, ii Regnorum iv
xi. Sermones dierum Esdrae Paralipomenon (= Dierum liber)
xii. Liber Psalmorum Esdrae ii

xiii—xv. Salomonis Proverbia, Ecclesiastes, Canticum Canticorum

Hester
Prophetarum
xvi. Duodecim Prophetae

(Esaias, Ieremias, Ezechiel, Daniel, xii Prophetarum liber i)

xvii—xxii. Esaias, Jeremias cum Lamentatione et Epistola, Daniel, Ezekiel, Job, Hester

Iob
Psalmi David

Salomon[is] iii
[xxiii—xxiv. Tobias, Judith]438438"Quibusdam autem visum est additis Tobia et Judith xxiv libros secundum numerum Graecarum literarum connumerare." (Proverbia, Ecclesiastes, Cantica Canticorum)

Sapienta Salomonis
Sapientia Sirach (= Ecclesiasticus)
Tobias
Iudith
Maccabaeorum libri

 

3. Augustine (de doctr. Chr. ii. 23) 4. Innocent I. (ep. ad Exsuperium).
[Historiae:] Moysi[s] libri quinque

Quinque Moyseos [libri]

(Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numeri, Deuteronomium)

(Genesis, Exodi, Levitici, Numeri, Deuteronomii)

Iesu Naue
Iesu Naue Iudicum
Iudicum Regnorum libri iv
Ruth Ruth
Regnorum libri iv Prophetarum libri xvi
Paralipomenon libri ii Salomonis libri v
Iob Psalterium
Tobias Historiarum:
Esther Job
Iudith Tobias
Machabaeorum libri ii Hester
Esdrae libri ii Iudith
Prophetae: Machabaeorum libri ii
David liber Psalmorum Esdrae libri ii
Salamonis libri iii Paralipomenon libri ii

(Proverbiorum, Canticum Canticorum, Ecclesiastes)

Sapienta, Eccleasiasticus439439Of the canonicity of these two books Augustine speaks with some reserve: "de quadam similitudine Salomonis esse dicuntur . . . qui tamen quoniam in auctoritatem recipi meruerunt inter propheticos numerandi sunt."

Prophetarum xii

(Osee, Ioel, Amos, Abdias, Ionas, Michaeas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggaeus, Zacharias, Malachias)

Prophetae iv maiorum voluminum

(Isaias, Ieremias, Daniel, Ezechiel)

 

5. Pseudo-Gelasius decret. de libr. 6. Cassiodorius (de inst. Div. litt. 14).
Moysis v libri: Genesis
Genesis Exodus
Exodus Leviticus
Leviticus Numeri
Numeri Deuteronomium
Deuteronomium Iesu Nave
Iesu Naue Regum i—iv
Iudicum Paralipomenon i, ii
Ruth Psalterium
Regum i—iv  
Item libri prophetarum numero xvi: Salomonis libri v

(Isaias, Ieremias, Ezechiel, Daniel, Osee, Amos, Michas, Iohel, Abdias, Ionas, Naum, Abacu, Sofonias, Agaeus, Zacharias, Maleachias)

(Proverbia, Sapientia, Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes, Canticum canticorum)

Paralipomena i, ii Prophetae
Psalmorum cl

(Isaias, Hieremias, Ezechiel, Daniel, Osee, Amos, Michaeas, Joel, Abdias, Jonas, Naum, Abbacuc, Sofonias, Aggaeus, Zacharias, Malachias, qui et Angelus)

Salamonis libri iii Job

(Proverbiorum, Ecclesiastes, Canticum Canticorum)

Tobi[as]
Liber Sapientiae filii Siracis Esther
Alius subsequens liber Sapientiae Iudith
Item historiarum: Esdrae [libri] ii
Iob Machabaeorum libri ii
Tobias
Hester
Iudith
Macchabaeorum libri ii

 

7. Isidorus de ord. libr. s. scr.
1. Quinque libri Moyseos

4. Prophetae: Psalmorum liber i, Salomonis libri iii (Proverbiorum, Ecclesiastes, Cantica Canticorum), Sapienta, Ecclesiasticus, libri xvi Prophetarum

2. Iesu Nave, Iudicum, Ruth

3. Regum i—iv, Paralipomenon i, ii, Tobiae, Esther, Iudith, Esdrae, Machabaeorum libri duo

 

8. Mommsen's List, cited by Zahn, Gesch. d. N. T. Kanons, ii. p. 143 f.; Sanday, Studia Biblica, iii. p. 222 f.; Preuschen, Analecta, p. 138440440The text of Preuschen has been followed; it is based on a St Gall MS. which appears to be less corrupt than the Cheltenham MS. used by Mommsen and others..
Libri canonici Regnorum liber ii ver ĪĪCC
Genesis versus ĪĪĪDCC Regnorum liber iii ver ĪĪDL
Exodus ver ĪĪĪ Regnorum liber iv ver ĪĪCCL
Numeri ver ĪĪĪĪ Fiunt versus VIIIID
Leviticus ver ĪĪCCC Paralipomenon liber i ver ĪĪXL
Deuteronomium ver ĪĪDCC liber ii ver ĪĪC
Hiesu Nave ver MDCCL Machabeorum liber i ver ĪĪCCC
Iudicum ver MDCCL liber ii ver MDCCC
Fiunt libri vii ver  XVIIIC Iob ver MDCC
Rut ver CCL Tobias ver DCCCC
Regnorum liber i ver ĪĪCCC Hester ver DCC
Iudit ver MC Ieremias ver ĪĪĪĪCCCCL
Psalmi Davitici cli ver V Daniel ver MCCCL
Salomonis ver  VID Ezechiel ver ĪĪĪCCCXL

Prophetae maiores ver  XVCCCLXX numero IIII

Prophetae xii ver IIIDCCC
Esaias ver IIIDLXXX Erunt omnes versus numero LXVIIIID

 

  10. Liber sacramentorum (Bobbio, cent. vi. vii).
1. List in Cod. Claromontanus.  
Versus scribturarum sanctarum Liber Genesis
ita Genesis versus IIIID Exodum
Exodus versus ĪĪĪDCC Leviticum
Leviticum versus ĪĪCCC Numeri
Numeri vrsus ĪĪĪDCL Deuteronomium
Deuteronomium ver. ĪĪĪCCC Josue
Iesu Nauve ver. ĪĪ Judicum
Iudicum ver. ĪĪ Libri mulierum
Rud ver. CCL Ruth
Regnorum ver Hester
primus liber ver. ĪĪD Judith
secundus lib. ver ĪĪ Maccabeorum libri duo
tertius lib. ver. ĪĪDC Job
quartus lib. ver ĪĪCCCC Thobias
Psalmi Davitici ver. V Regum quattuor
Proverbia ver. ĪDC Prophetarum libri xvi
Aeclesiastes DC Daviticum v
Cantica canticorum CCC Solomonis iii
Sapientia vers. Ī Esdra i
Sapientia IHU ver. ĪĪD Fiunt libri Veteris numero xliiii
XII Profetae ver ĪĪĪCX
Ossee ver DXXX
Amos ver CCCCX
Micheas ver CCCX
Ioel ver. CL
Abdias ver. LXX
Ionas ver. CL
Naum ver. CXL
Ambacum ver. CLX
Sophonias ver. CXL
Aggeus vers. CX
Zacharias ver. DCLX
Malachiel ver. CC
Eseias ver. IIIDC
Ieremias ver ĪĪĪĪLXX

 

  11. Council of Carthage, A.D. 397 (can. 47 = 39).
Ezechiel ver ĪĪĪDC Genesis
Daniel ver ĪDC Exodus
Maccabeorum sic. Leviticus
lib. primus ver. ĪĪCCC Numeri
lib. secundus ver ĪĪCCC Deuteronomium
lib. quartus ver. Ī Iesu Naue
Iudit vr. ĪCCC Iudicum
Hesdra ĪD Ruth
Ester ver Ī Regnorum libri iv
Iob ver. ĪDC Paralipomenon libri ii
Tobias ver. Ī Job
Psalterium Davidicum
Salomonis libri v
xii libri Prophetarum
Iesaias
Ieremias
Ezechiel
Daniel
Tobias
Iudith
Hester
Hesdrae libri ii
Machabaeorum libri ii441441See also the Latin list printed by Mr C. H. Turner in J. Th. St. i. 557 ff.

 

2. We may now proceed to consider the chief points which these tables illustrate.

(1) THE TITLES OF THE BOOKS. It will be seen that the Hebrew titles fall into three classes. They consist of either (1) the first word or words of the book (Genesis—Deuteronomy, Proverbs, Lamentations); or (2) the name of the hero or supposed author (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah and the other Prophets, Job, Ruth, Esther, Daniel, Ezra); or (3) a description of the contents (Psalms, Song of Songs, Chronicles). Titles of the second and third class are generally reproduced in the Greek; there are some variations, as when Samuel and Kings become 'Kingdoms,' and 'Diaries' (דִּבְי־הֵיָּטִים) is changed into 'Omissions' (Παραλειπόμενα442442Or less correctly Παραλειπόμενοι, 'omitted books,' as in some lists. ), but the system of nomenclature is the same. But titles of the first class disappear in the Greek, and in their place we find descriptive names, suggested in almost every case by words in the version itself. Thus Genesis appears to come from Gen. ii. 4 αὕτη ἡ βίβλος γενέσεως οὐραωοῦ καὶ γῆς, Exodus from Ex. xix. 1 τῆς ἐξόδοθ τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου, Numbers from Num. i. 2 κατὰ ἀριθμὸν ἐξ ὀνόματος, Deuteronomy from Deut. xvii. 18 γράψει αὐτῷ τὸ δευτερονόμιον τοῦτο εἰς βιβλίον443443On this rendering see Driver, Deuteronomy, p. i. The Massora calls the book מִשְׁגֵה הַתּוֹרָה. , Ecclesiastes from Eccl. i. 1 ῥήmata ἐkklhsiastoῦ.

The Greek titles are probably of Alexandrian origin and pre-Christian use. Not only were they familiar to Origen (Eus. H. E. vi. 25), but they are used in Melito's list, although it came from Palestine. Some of them at least appear to have been known to the writers of the New Testament; cf. Acts ii. 30 ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν, xiii. 33 ἐν τῷ ψακνῷ τῷ δευτέρῳ, Rom. ix. 25 ἐν τῷ Ὡσῆε λέγει444444See also Acts xiii. 20, 33, Rom. x. 16, xv. 11, Heb. xi. 22.. Philo445445See Prof. Ryle's Philo and Holy Scripture, p. xx. ff. uses Γένεσις, Λευιτικὸν or Λευιτικὴ βίβλος, Δεθτερονόμιον, Βασιλεῖαι, Παροιμίαι, but his practice is not quite constant; e.g. he calls Exodus ἡ Ἐξαγωγή446446So in Cohn-Wendland's edition (iii. 4, 57, 230); in ii. 271 this title is ascribed to Moses, although ἐξαγωγή does not like ἔξοδος occur in the Alexandrian version of the book. Ἡ Ἐξαγωγή was also the title of the Hellenist Ezekiel's poem on the Exodus (see below, p. 371).; Deuteronomy is sometimes ἡ Ἐπινομίς, and Judges ἡ τῶν Κ͓ιμάτων447447Cf. the change from מְלָּכִים to Βασιλεῖαι. βίβλος, Similar titles occur in the Mishna448448See Ryle, Canon of the O. T., p. 294., whether suggested by the Alexandrian Greek, or independently coined by the Palestinian Jews; thus Genesis is סֵפֶּר יְצִירָה, Numbers ס׳ מִסְפָּרִים, Proverbs ס׳ חָכְמָה, Lamentations קִינוֹת.

Through the Old Latin version the Greek titles passed into the Latin Bible449449Sometimes in a simple transliteration, as Genesis &c. Tertullian has Arithmi but in Cyprian the Latin Numeri is already used; see Burkitt, O. L. and Itala, p. 4., and from the Latin Bible into the later versions of Western Christendom. In three instances, however, the influence of Jerome restored the Hebrew titles; 1, 2 Kingdoms have become 1, 2 Samuel, and 3, 4 Kingdoms, 1, 2 Kings, whilst 'Chronicles,' representing the Hebrew דִּבְרֵי־הַיָּמִים, has taken the place of Paralipomenon.

 

Cf Hieron. Prol. Gal.: "tertius sequitur Samuel, quem nos Regnorum primum et secundum dicimus; quartus Malachim, id est Regum, qui tertio et quarto Regnorum volumine continetur . . . septimus Dabre aiamim, id est 'Verba dierum,' quod significantius Chronicon totius divinae historiae possumus appellare."

The Greek titles vary slightly in different codices and lists. Besides the variations of cod. A which appear in Table B (2), the following are mentioned in the apparatus of Holmes and Parsons. Joshua: Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναυή, ὁ τοῦ Ναυή, Judges: Κριταὶ τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, αἱ τῶν κριτῶν πράξεις. Chronicles: Παραλειπομένων τῶν βασιλειῶν Ἰούδα. Psalms: Δαυὶδ προφήτου καὶ βασιλέως μέλος. When Nehemiah is separated from Ezra its title is: τὰ περὶ Νεεμίου or λόγοι Ν. υἱοῦ Ἁχαλία. A few further forms may be gleaned from the patristic lists. As an alternative for Παραλειπομένων the Apostolic Canons give τοῦ βιβλίου τῶν ἡμερῶν, while Ezra is known to Hilary as sermones dierum Esdrae. The Psalter is sometimes βίβλος Ψαλμῶν, liber Psalmorum, or Ψαλτήριον Δαβιτικόν, Psalmi David regis, Psalterium Daviticum. For ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων we have occasionally ᾄσματα ᾀσμάτων—a form rejected by Origen (ap. Eus. H.E. vi. 25 οὐ γάρ, ὡς ὑπολαμβάνουσί τινες, ᾌσματα ᾀσμάτων), but used by Pseudo-Chrysostom and John of Damascus, and found in cod. A and in several of the Latin lists450450The official Vulgate had Canticum, until the plural was adopted by Sixtus V.; see Nestle, ein Jubiläum der Lat. Bibel, p. 18.; cf. the English Article VI. "Cantica, or Songs of Solomon." The lesser Prophets are οἱ δώδεκα or δεκαδύο, τῶν δώδεκα προφητῶν μία βίβλος, τὸ δωδεκαπρόφητον, prophetae xii; the greater, οἱ τέσσαρες, prophetae iv, prophetae iv maiorum voluminum, or simply maiores; when the two collections are merged into one they become οἱ δεκαέξ or οἱ ἑκκαίδεκα, τὸ ἑκκαιδεκαπρόφητον, prophetae xvi.

 

(2) THE GROUPING OF THE BOOKS. The methods of grouping adopted in the Hebrew and Alexandrian Greek Bibles differ not less widely than the nomenclature of the books. The Hebrew canon is uniformly tripartite, and "the books belonging to one division are never (by the Jews) transferred to another451451Driver, Introd., p. xxvii.." Its three groups are known as the Law (תּוֹרָה), the Prophets (נְבִאִים), and the Writings (כְּתוּבִים). The Massora recognised, however, certain subdivisions within the second and third groups; the Prophets were classed as Former (רִאשׁוֹנִים), i.e. Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings; and Latter (אַחֲרוֹנִים), and among the 'Latter' the Twelve minor Prophets formed a single collection452452So already in Sir. xlix. 10 τῶν ιβʹ πρφητῶν. . Similarly 'the five Rolls' (מְגִלּוׂת), i.e. Ruth, Canticles, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther, made a subsection among the Kethubim. The tripartite division of the canon was known at Alexandria in the second century B.C., for the writer of the prologue to Sirach refers to it more than once (1 f. τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τῶν κατ᾿ αὐτοὺς ἠκολουθηκότων: 6 f. τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πατρίων βιβλίων: 14 f. ὁ νόμος καὶ αἱ προφητεῖαι καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τῶν βιβλίων). It is also recognised in the New Testament, where the Law and the Prophets are mentioned as authoritative collections, and in one passage the 'Writings' are represented by the Psalter (Lc. xxiv. 44 πάντα τὰ γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ νόμῳ Μωυσέως καὶ τοῖς προφήταις καὶ ψαλμοῖς). But the New Testament has no comprehensive name for the third group, and even Josephus (c. Ap. i. 8) speaks of four poetical books (probably Psalms, Job, Proverbs and Ecclesiastes) as forming with the Law and the Prophets the entire series of sacred books; the rest of the Hagiographa seem to have been counted by him among the Prophets453453See Ryle, Canon of the O.T., p. 165 f.. At Alexandria the later books were probably attached to the canon by a looser bond. The writer of the De vita contemplativa appears to recognise four groups454454Unless we omit the comma after ὕμνους and regard ὕ. καὶ τὰ ἄλλα as = the Hagiographa; cf. Joseph. c. Ap. as quoted below, p. 220. (§ 3 νόμους, καὶ λόγια θεσπισθέντα διὰ προφητῶν, καὶ ὕμνους, καὶ τὰ ἄλλα οἷς ἐπιστήμη καὶ εὐσέβεια συναύξονται καὶ τελειοῦνται).

Only the first of the three Palestinian groups remains undisturbed455455Yet even the Torah was not always kept apart in the Greek Bible, as the names Octateuch and Heptateuch witness. in the Alexandrian Greek Bible, as it is preserved to us in MSS. and described in Christian lists. When the Law was translated into Greek, it was already a complete collection, hedged round with special sanctions, and in all forms of the Greek Bible it retains its precedence and has resisted any extensive intrusion of foreign matter. It is otherwise with the Prophets and the Hagiographa. Neither of these groups escaped decomposition when it passed into the Greek Bible. The Former Prophets are usually separated from the Latter, the poetical books coming between. The Hagiographa are entirely broken up, the non-poetical books being divided between the histories and the prophets. This distribution is clearly due to the characteristically Alexandrian desire to arrange the books according to their literary character or contents, or their supposed authorship. Histories were made to consort with histories, prophetic and poetical writings with others of their respective kinds. On this principle Daniel is in all Greek codices and catalogues one of the Greater Prophets, while Ruth attaches itself to Judges, and Canticles to Ecclesiastes.

In many of the Greek patristic lists the Alexandrian principle of grouping receives express recognition. Thus Cyril of Jerusalem, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Leontius, divide the books of the Old Testament into (1) historical—12, including the Mosaic Pentateuch; (2) poetical—5; (3) prophetical—5. Epiphanius, followed by John of Damascus, endeavours to combine this grouping with a system of pentateuchs456456Dr Sanday (in Studia Biblica, iii. p. 240) regards this as Palestinian, identifying it with Cyril's method. But Cyril begins with a dodecad (δωδεκάτη ἡ Ἐσθήρ· καὶ τὰ μὲν Ἱστορικὰ ταῦτα).—(1) legal, (2) poetical, (3) historical457457The term γραφεῖα (כְּתוּבִים) or ἁγιόγραφα is transferred to this group., (4) prophetical —an end which he attains by relegating Ezra and Esther to an appendix. Pseudo-Chrysostom's arrangement is similar, though slightly different in some of its details; according to his view the Bible began with an Octateuch, and the στιχηρά are broken up, the Psalter being placed with the Prophets, and the Salomonic books described as 'hortatory458458So Leontius τὰ ταραινετικά), but he classed the Psalter among them.' (τὸ συιβουλευτικόν). Even in the eccentric arrangement of Junilius459459See Kihn, Theodor v. Mopsuestia u. Junilius, p. 356 f. the Greek method of grouping is clearly dominant.

The relative order of the groups in the Greek Bible, being of literary and not historical origin, is to some extent liable to variation. The 'five books of Moses' always claim precedence, and the 'rest of the histories' follow, but the position of the poetical and prophetical books is less certain. Codex B places the poetical books first, whilst in Codd. א and A the prophets precede. But the order of cod. B is supported by the great majority of authorities both Eastern and Western (Melito, Origen, Athanasius, Cyril, Epiphanius (1, 3), Gregory, Amphilochius, the Laodicene and 'Apostolic' canons, Nicephorus, Pseudo-Chrysostom, the Cheltenham list, the African canons of 397, and Augustine). Two reasons may have combined to favour this arrangement. 'David' and 'Solomon' were higher up the stream of time than Hosea and Isaiah. Moreover, it may have seemed fitting that the Prophets should immediately precede the Evangelists.

 

(3) THE NUMBER OF THE BOOKS. In our printed Hebrew Bibles the books of the Old Testament are 39 (Law, 5; Former Prophets (Joshua—2 Kings), 6; Latter Prophets, 15; Hagiographa, 13). But Samuel, Kings, Ezra-Nehemiah, and Chronicles460460Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah appears to have been originally a single book. But while Ezra and Nehemiah are still joined in the Greek Bible, Chronicles stands by itself both in and , and in it follows Nehemiah and forms the last book of the Canon (cf. Mt. xxiii. 35, and see Barnes Chronicles, in the Cambridge Bible, pp. x.—xiii.)., were originally single books461461The division probably began in the LXX., and the Minor Prophets were also counted as a single book. Thus the number is reduced to 24 (Law, 5; Former Prophets, 4; Latter Prophets, 4; Hagiographa, 11), and this answers to the prevalent Jewish tradition. On the other hand Josephus expressly limits the books to 22 (Law, 5; Prophets, i3; Hymns and moral pieces, 4). He has probably included the historical Hagiographa among the Prophets, and treated Ruth and Lamentations as appendices to Judges and Jeremiah respectively.

Both traditions were inherited by the Church, but the latter was predominant, especially in the East. In some lists indeed the twenty-two books became twenty-seven, the 'double books' being broken up into their parts (Epiph. 1)462462Jerome, Prol. Gal.: "quinque a plerisque libri duplices aestimantur." As the twenty-two books answered to the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet, so these 'double books' were thought to correspond to the 'double letters,' i.e. those which had two forms (כ ,מ ,נ ,פ ,צ). The 'double books were not always identical in different lists; see Sanday, op. cit. p. 239.; in some a similar treatment of the Dodecapropheton raised the number to 34 (the 'Sixty Books'), and there are other eccentricities of numeration which need not be mentioned here.

 

Josephus, c. Ap. i. 8: οὐ μυριάδες βιβλίων εἰσὶ παρ᾿ ἡμῖν ἀσυμφώνων καὶ μαχομένων, δύο μόνα πρὸς τοῖς εἴκοσι βιβλία . . . καὶ τούτων πέντε μέν ἐστι Μωυσέως . . . οἱ μετὰ Μωυσῆν προφῆται . . . συνέγραψαν ἐν τρισὶ καὶ δέκα βιβλίοις· αἱ δὲ λοιπαὶ τέσσαρες ὕμνους εἰς τὸν θεὸν καὶ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ὑποθήκας τοῦ βίου περιέχουσιν. He is followed by Origen ap. Eus. l.c. οὐκ ἀγνοητέον δ᾿ εἶναι τὰς ἐνδιαθήκους βίβλους ὡς Ἐβραῖοι παραδιδόασιν, ὅσος ὁ ἀριθμὸς τῶν παῤ αὐτοῖς στοιχείων ἐστίν· and Cyril. Hier. catech. iv. 33 ἀναγίνωσκε τὰς θείας γραφάς, τὰς εἴκοςι δύο βίβλους τῆς παλαιᾶς διαθήκης. Similarly Athanasius, ep. fest. 39 (Migne, P.G. xxvi. col. 1437). When another numeration was adopted, efforts were made to shew that it did not involve a real departure from the canon of twenty-two; cf. Epiph. haer. i. I. 8, αὗταί εἰσιν αἱ εἴκοσι ἑπτὰ βίβλοι αἱ ἐκ θεοῦ δοθεῖσαι τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις, εἴκοσι δύο δὲ ὡς τὰ παῤ αὐτοῖς στοιχεῖα τῶν Ἐβραικῶν γραμμάτων ἀριθμούμεναι διὰ τὸ διπλοῦσθαι δέκα βίβλους εἰς πέντε λεγομένας· dial. Tim. et Aq. (ed. Conybeare, p. 66), αὗται αἱ βίβλοι αἱ θεόπνευστοι καὶ ἐνδιάθετοι, κςʹ μὲν οὖσαι, κβʹ δὲ ἀριθμούμεναι διὰ τὸ . . . ἐξ αὐτῶν διπλοῦσθαι.

On the other hand the numeration in 4 Esdr. xiv. 44 rests, if nongenti quatuor be the true reading, on a tradition which makes the Hebrew books 24. This tradition is supported by the testimony of the Talmud and the Rabbinical literature463463Cf. Ryle Canon, pp. 157 f., 222, 292; Sanday, op. cit. p. 236 ff., and the Canon is known in Jewish writings by the name כ״ד ספרים, "the Twenty-Four Books." It finds a place in certain Western Christian writers, e.g. Victorinus of Petau comm. in Apoc.: "sunt autem libri V.T. qui accipiuntur viginti quatuor quos in epitome Theodori invenies464464Zahn offers a suggestion, to which Sanday inclines, that the writer refers to the Excerpta ex Theodoto which are partly preserved in the works of Clement of Alexandria.." Victorinus compares the 24 books to the 24 Elders of Apoc. iv., and the same fancy finds a place in the Cheltenham list ("ut in apocalypsi Iohannis dictum est Vidi XXIIII seniores mittentes coronas suas ante thronum, maiores nostri probant hoc libros esse canonicos"). Jerome knows both traditions, though he favours the former (Prol. Gal. "quomodo igitur viginti duo elementa sunt . . . ita viginti duo volumina supputantur . . . quamquam nonnulli Ruth et Cinoth inter Hagiograpba scriptitent et libros hos in suo putent numero supputandos et per hoc esse priscae legis libros viginti quatuor").

 

Let us now turn to the ecclesiastical lists and see how far the Hebrew Canon was maintained.

Our earliest Christian list was obtained from Palestine465465Melito ap. Eus. H.E. iv. 26 ἐπειδὴ μαθεῖν τὴν τῶν παλαιῶν βιβλίων ἐβουλήθης ἀκρίβειαν, πόσα τὸν ἀριθμὸν καὶ ὁποῖα τὴν τάξιν εἶεν . . . ἀνελθὼν εἰς τὴν ἀνατολὴν καὶ ἕως τοῦ τόπου ἔνθα ἐκηρύχθη καὶ ἐπράχθη . . . ἔπεμψά σοι. , and probably represents the contents of the Palestinian Greek Bible. It is an attempt to answer the question, What is the true number and order of the books of the Old Testament? Both the titles and the grouping are obviously Greek, but the books are exclusively those of the Hebrew canon. Esther does not appear, but the number of the books is twenty-two, if we are intended to count 1—4 Regn. as two.

The next list comes from Origen. It belongs to his commentary on the first Psalm, which was written at Alexandria466466Eus. H.E. vi. 24., i.e. before A.D. 231. The books included in it are expressly said to be the twenty-two of the Hebrew canon εἰσὶ δὲ αἱ εἴκοσι δύο βίβλοι καθ᾿ Ἑβραίους αἵδε). Yet among them are the first book of Esdras467467Already cited freely by Josephus as an authority for the history of the period. Origen, it should be added, regards 1, 2 Esdras as a single volume (Ἔσδρας πρώτη, δευτέρα ἐν ἑνί). and the Epistle of Jeremiah, which the Jews never recognised. With the addition of Baruch, Origen's list is repeated by Athanasius, Cyril, Epiphanius (1), and in the Laodicean canon; Amphilochius mentions two books of Esdras, and it is at least possible that the Esdras of Gregory of Nazianzus is intended to include both books, and that the Epistle, or Baruch and the Epistle, are to be understood as forming part of Jeremiah in the lists both of Gregory and Amphilochius. Thus it appears that an expansion of the Hebrew canon, which involved no addition to the number of the books, was predominant in the East during the fourth century.

The Eastern lists contain other books, but they are definitely placed outside the Canon. This practice seems to have begun with Origen, who after enumerating the twenty-two books adds, ἔξω δὲ τούτων ἐστὶ τὰ Μακκαβαϊκά. Athanasius takes up the expression, but names other books—the two Wisdoms, Esther468468Cf. Melito's omission of Esther, and the note appended to the list of Amphilochius., Judith, and Tobit469469The N.T. members of the same class are the Teaching and the Shepherd.. Palestine was perhaps naturally conservative in this matter; Cyril will not allow his catechumens to go beyond the Canon, and Epiphanius mentions only, and that with some hesitation, the two books of Wisdom (εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ ἄλλαι παῤ αὐτοῖς βίβλοι ἐν ἀμφιλέκτῳ470470Haer. I. i. 1. . . . αὗται χρήσιμοι μέν εἰσι καὶ ὠφέλιμοι, ἀλλ᾿ εἰς ἀριθμὸν ῥητῶν οὐκ ἀναφέρονται)471471De mens. et pond. 4.. And this was the prevalent attitude of the East even at a later time. There are exceptions; Pseudo-Chrysostom places Sirach among the Hortatory books of the canon; the Apostolic canons, while excluding Sirach, include three books of Maccabees. But John of Damascus reflects the general opinion of the Greek fathers when, while reckoning both books of Esdras472472Like Origen, he explains that they form together but a single book (τοῦ Ἔσδρα αἱ δύο εἰς μίαν συναπτόμεναι βίβλον). as canonical, he repeats the verdict of Epiphanius upon the two Wisdoms, Ἐηάρετοι μὲν καὶ καλαί, ἀλλ᾿ οὐκ ἀριθμοῦνται473473The non-canonical books (τὰ ἔξω) are however carefully distinguished from real apocrypha when the latter are mentioned; e.g. in the stichometry of Nicephorus, and in the list of the 'Sixty Books.'.

On the other hand the West, further from the home of the Hebrew canon, and knowing the Old Testament chiefly through the Latin version of the LXX., did not scruple to mingle non-canonical books with the canonical. Hilary and Ruffinus474474In symb. 38 "alii libri sunt qui non canonici sed ecclesiastici a maioribus appellati sunt." were doubtless checked, the one by the influence of Eastern theologians, the other by the scholarship of Jerome; but Hilary mentions that there were those who wished to raise the number of the canonical books to twenty-four by including Tobit and Judith in the canon. From the end of the fourth century the inclusion of the non-canonical books in Western lists is a matter of course. Even Augustine has no scruples on the subject; he makes the books of the Old Testament forty-four (de doctr. Chr. ii. 13 "his xliv libris Testamenti Veteris terminatur auctoritas475475Cf. Retract. ii. 4."), and among them Tobit, Judith, and two books of Maccabees take rank with the histories; and the two Wisdoms, although he confesses that they were not the work of Solomon, are classed with the Prophets. His judgement was that of his Church (Conc. Carth. iii. can. xlvii. "sunt canonicae scripturae Salomonis libri quinque . . . Tobias, Judith . . . Machabaeorum libri duo"). The African Church had probably never known any other canon, and its belief prevailed wherever the Latin Bible was read.

There can be little doubt that, notwithstanding the strict adherence of the Eastern lists to the number of the Hebrew books, the Old Latin canon truly represents the collection of Greek sacred books which came into the hands of the early Christian communities at Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome. When Origen and the Greek fathers who follow him fix the number of the books at twenty-two or twenty-four, they follow, not the earlier tradition of the Church, but the corrected estimate of Christian scholars who had learned it from Jewish teachers. An earlier tradition is represented by the line of Christian writers, beginning with Clement of Rome, who quoted the 'Apocryphal' books apparently without suspecting that they were not part of the Canon. Thus Clement of Rome4764761 Cor. 55. places the story of Judith side by side with that of Esther; the Wisdom of Sirach is cited by Barnabas477477c. 19. 9. and the Didache478478c. 4., and Tobit by Polycarp479479Philipp. 10.; Clement of Alexandria480480Strom. i. 10, v. 14. and Origen appeal to Tobit and both the Wisdoms, to which Origen adds Judith481481Cf. Westcott in D. C. B. iv. p. 130.. Our earliest MSS. of the Greek Bible confirm the impression derived from the quotations of the earliest Christian writers. Their canon corresponds not with that of the great writers of the age when they were written, but with that of the Old Latin version of the LXX. Codd. B א A contain the two Wisdoms, Tobit, and Judith; 1—2 Maccabees are added in א, and 1—4 Maccabees in A; cod. C still exhibits the two Wisdoms, and when complete may have contained other books of the same class. Moreover, the position of the books shews that the scribes of these MSS. or of their archetypes lacked either the power or the will to distinguish them from the books of the Hebrew canon. In the light of the facts already produced, it is clear that the presence of the non-canonical books in Greek Bibles cannot be attributed to the skilled writers of the fourth and fifth centuries. They have but perpetuated an older tradition—a tradition probably inherited from the Alexandrian Jews.

An explanation of the early mixture of non-canonical books with canonical may be found in the form under which the Greek Bible passed into the keeping of the Church. In the first century the material used for literary purposes was still almost exclusively papyrus, and the form was that of the roll482482See Kenyon, Palaeography of Greek papyri, pp. 24, 113 ff.. But rolls of papyrus seldom contained more than a single work, and writings of any length, especially if divided into books, were often transcribed into two or more separate rolls483483Ib. p. 122: "no papyrus roll of Homer hitherto discovered contains more than two books of the Iliad. Three short orations fill the largest roll of Hyperides.". The rolls were kept in boxes (κιβωτοί, κίσται, capsae, sistae)484484E. M. Thompson, Greek and Latin Palaeography, p. 57., which served not only to preserve them, but to collect them in sets. Now while the sanctity of the five books of Moses would protect the cistae which contained them from the intrusion of foreign rolls, no scruple of this kind would deter the owner of a roll of Esther from placing it in the same box with Judith and Tobit; the Wisdoms in like manner naturally found their way into a Salomonic collection; while in a still larger number of instances the two Greek recensions of Esdras consorted together, and Baruch and the Epistle seemed rightly to claim a place with the roll of Jeremiah. More rarely such a writing as the Psalms of Solomon may have found its way into the company of kindred books of the canon. It is not a serious objection to this hypothesis that Philo does not quote the Apocrypha, and has no certain allusion to it485485Ryle, Philo and Holy Scripture, p. xxxiii.. A great scholar would not be deceived by the mixture of heterogeneous rolls, which might nevertheless seriously mislead ordinary readers, and start a false tradition in an unlettered community such as the Christian society of the first century.

 

(4) THE INTERNAL ORDER OF THE GROUPS. Even in Jewish lists of the Hebrew Canon there are variations in the internal order of the Prophets and the Hagiographa. The 'Great Prophets' occur in each of the three orders (1) Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel; (2) Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah; (3) Jeremiah, Isaiah, Ezekiel486486See Ryle, Canon, p. 225 ff.. The order of the Hagiographa varies more extensively. In the printed Bibles they are arranged in three subdivisions: (1) Psalms, Proverbs, Job; (2) Canticles, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther (the five Megilloth); (3) Daniel, Ezra, Chronicles. The Talmudic order is as follows: Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, Chronicles. The MSS. vary, many agreeing with the printed Bibles; others, especially those of Spanish provenance, following the order: Chronicles, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Canticles, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra487487Ryle, ib., pp. 229 ff., 281 f..

In the lists of the Greek Bible and the sequence of its MSS. the Law and the 'Former Prophets' generally retain their Hebrew order, with the noteworthy exception that Ruth is always attached to Judges. But there are also minor exceptions which are of some interest. Even in the Pentateuch Melito, Leontius, and the Cheltenham list reverse the common order of Leviticus and Numbers488488On this see Sanday, Studia Biblica, iii. p. 241.. The sequence is broken in some lists after Ruth (Laod., Epiph. 1), or even after Joshua (Epiph. 3489489Ruth is attached to 1 Regn. in the Cheltenham list, and Augustine inclines to this arrangement (see Sanday, 1.c., p. 242). The result was to create a Heptateuch; for the word cf. J. E. B. Mayor, The Latin Heptateuch, p. xxxvi. R. Peiper's text of the Heptateuchos, to which Prof. Mayor refers (p. xxxiv.), appeared in the Vienna Corpus scr. eccl. lat. vol. xiii. (1895).) or Deuteronomy (Epiph. 1). Occasionally Chronicles, which is an intruder from the Hagiographa, precedes 1—4 Regn. (Epiph. 2, Dial. Tim. et Aq.), or drops out altogether (Ps.-Chrys., Junilius, Cod. Clarom.). All these disturbances of the normal order may be ascribed to local or individual influences, and find no support in the uncial MSS. of the Greek Bible. But it is otherwise when we come to the 'Latter Prophets' and the Hagiographa. With regard to the Prophets, three questions of order arise. (1) There is the relative order of the Twelve and the Four. In the majority of patristic lists the Twelve precede (Ath., Cyr., Epiph., Greg., Amph., &c.), and this is also the order of Codd. A, B, N-V. But Cod. א begins with the Four, and it is supported by other authorities, chiefly Western (Ruff, Chelt., Ps.-Gelasius, Cassiodorius, Nicephorus); whilst in a few the subdivisions are mixed (Melito, Junilius, Ebedjesu490490For statements by early Mohammedan writers as to the extent of the Jewish and Christian Canons see Margoliouth in Exp. Times, Nov. 1899, p. 91.). (2) The internal order of the δωδεκαπρόφητον in most of the MSS. and catalogues491491The chief exceptions are: Cod. v, Hosea, Amos, Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah; Greg. Naz. and Cod. Barocc., Hosea, Amos, Micah, Joel, Jonah, Obadiah; Junilius, Ebedjesu, Augustine, the Hebrew order. where it is stated differs from the Hebrew order in regard to the relative positions of the prophets in the first half of the group; the Hebrew order being Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, but the Greek, Hosea, Amos, Micah, Joel, Obadiah, Jonah. The dominant Greek order may perhaps be due to "an attempt to secure greater accuracy in the chronological arrangement492492Ryle, Canon, p. 229.." (3) The Greek order of the Greater Prophets follows the oldest Hebrew tradition (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel), but it appends Lamentations to Jeremiah, and enlarges the group by placing Daniel either before (Melito, Origen, Hilary, Chelt., Augustine), or, more usually, after Ezekiel.

The relative order of the Hagiographa in the LXX. is more perplexing. For Ruth, Lamentations, and Daniel we have already accounted; there remain Chronicles, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, Esther, and Ezra. Chronicles, in accordance with the theory enshrined in its Greek name, usually follows Kings. Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, for the most part hold together in that order, as a group of poetical books; but there are many exceptions. 'David' sometimes goes with the Prophets (Ps.-Chrys., Junilius, Augustine, Isidorus), and the group is then regarded as 'Salomonic,' or 'hortatory.' Lists which admit the two books of Wisdom usually join them to this subdivision (Ebedjesu, Carth., Augustine, Innocent, Cod. Clarom., Ps.-Gelasius, Cassiodorius, Isidorus). The internal order of the Salomonic books varies (Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles; Ecclesiastes, Canticles, Proverbs; Proverbs, Canticles, Ecclesiastes); the Wisdoms usually follow, but sometimes break the sequence of the three canonical books. Much difficulty seems to have been felt as to the place of Job; the book normally appears in connexion with the poetical books, either last or first, but it is sometimes placed among the histories (Augustine, Innocent, Cod Clarom., Ps.-Gelasius, Cassiodorius), or after the Prophets (Origen). The position of Esdras is not less uncertain; its normal place is after Chronicles, but it is also found before or after the Prophets (Melito, Epiph., John of Damascus, Cod. Barocc.), or in connexion with a group of the apocryphal histories (cod. A, Carth., Augustine, &c.). Esther is still more erratic; sometimes it follows the poetical books, sometimes the Prophets, sometimes the histories; not a few lists place it among the antilegomena, or omit it altogether. When admitted to a place in the Canon, it is usually to be found at or near the end (Origen, Epiphanius, Amphilochius, John of Damascus, Hilary, Carth., Cod. Clarom., Ps.-Gelasius, Cassiodorius), and in company with apocryphal books, especially Judith493493The proximity of Esther to Judith in many lists is perhaps due to the circumstance that in both books the central figure is a woman; cf. p. 213 (right-hand column). and Tobit (codd. BאA, Chelt., Carth., Augustine, and the later Latin lists494494Cf. Ryle, Canon, p. 199 ff.). It seems as if the doubt which the Jewish authorities felt with regard to this book was inherited by many Christians. On the other hand Cyril, who represents the tradition of the Church of Jerusalem, makes it the twelfth of the canonical books, and in the Laodicene list it stands eighth.

Except in cases where an old or well-defined tradition fixed the internal order of groups of books, there was clearly room for every possible variation so long as the books were written on separate rolls. The cista might serve to keep a group together, but it offered no means of fixing the relative order of its contents. In the codex, on the other hand, when it contained more than one writing, the order was necessarily fixed495495Cf. Sanday, Studia Biblica, iii. p. 233 ff., and the scribe unconsciously created a tradition which was followed by later copyists. The 'transition to vellum,' and the consequent transition from the roll to the codex, does not seem to have been general before the fourth century, although in the case of Biblical MSS. it may have begun a century earlier496496See Kenyon, Palaeography of papyri, p. 119 f.; Sanday, l.c. Papyrus was freely used for codices in Egypt during the third century; cf. Grenfell and Hunt, Oxyrhynchus Papyri, ii. p. 2.; and thus we may regard our earliest uncial codices as prototypes of the variations in order which mark the mass of later MSS. A single instance may suffice. It has been stated that Esther is frequently found in company with Judith and Tobit. But these books occur in varying order in the oldest MSS.; in B we have Esther, Judith, Tobit, but in א A, Esther, Tobit, Judith; a favourite Western order is Tobit, Esther, Judith (Chelt., Augustine, Innocent, Gelasius, Cassiodorius, Isidorus); another, sanctioned at Carthage in 397, is apparently more common in MSS. of the Vulgate, viz., Tobit, Judith, Esther497497For the order of the books in Latin MS. Bibles see S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate, pp. 301—6, 331—9.. Such variations, resting on no obvious principle, are doubtless ultimately due to the judgement or caprice of a few scribes, whose copies supplied the archetypes of the later Greek MSS. and the daughter-versions of the Septuagint.

 

LITERATURE. On the general subject of this chapter the student may consult C. A. Credner, Gesch. d. N. T. Kanons (ed. Volkmar, Berlin, 1860); Th. Zahn, Gesch. d. N.T. Kanons, ii., p. 143 ff. (Erlangen, 1890); B. F. Westcott, Hist. of the Canon of the N. T.6 (Cambridge, 1891); W. Sanday, The Cheltenham List, in Studia Biblica, iii., pp. 226—243 (Oxford, 1891); Buhl, Kanon u. Text des A. T. (Leipzig, 1891); H. E. Ryle, Canon of the O.T. (London, 1892); E. Preuschen, Analecta (Leipzig, 1893); H. L. Strack, art. Kanon des. Alten Testamentes in P.R.E.3 ix. 741—767.


« Prev Chapter I. Titles, Grouping, Number, and Order of… Next »

Advertisements


| Define | Popups: Login | Register | Prev Next | Help |