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NPNF-212. Leo the Great, Gregory the Great
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Epistle XLVI.

To John, Bishop.

Gregory to John, Bishop of Ravenna14441444    For elucidation of the circumstances of this Epistle see above, Epistles 3, 29, 30..

That I have not replied to the many letters of your Blessedness attribute not to sluggishness on my part, but to weakness, seeing that, on account of my sins, when Ariulph, coming to the Roman city, killed some and mutilated others, I was affected with such great sadness as to fall into a colic sickness.  But I wondered much why it was that that well-known care of your Holiness for me was of no advantage to this city and to my needs.  When, however, your letters reached me, I became aware that you are indeed taking pains to act, but yet have no one on whom you can bring your action to bear.  I therefore attribute it to my sins that this man14451445    Viz. Romanus Patricius, mentioned below, the Exarch of Ravenna, and as such representing the Emperor in Italy.  See I. 33, “Ad Romanum Patricium et Exarchum Italiæ.” with whom we are now concerned both evades fighting against our enemies and also forbids our making peace; though indeed at present, even if he wished us to make it, we are utterly unable, since Ariulph, having the army of Authar and Nordulf, desires their subsidies14461446    Precaria; apparently subsidies demanded for the support of the invading army.  Precarium (or Precarim), which has various applications, appears to be capable of this sense.  See Du Cange. to be given him ere he will deign to speak to us at all about peace.

But, as to the case of the bishops of Istria14471447    The Istrian bishops still held out in refusing to accept the condemnation of “The Three Chapters” passed in the fifth Œcumenical Council at the instance of the Emperor Justinian.  Gregory, soon after his accession, had summoned Severus, Bishop of Aquileia and Metropolitan, with his suffragans, to Rome; and this, as he alleges, by command of the Emperor, though the latter had now, it appears, forbidden further proceedings.  See I. 16, and note., I have learnt the truth of all you had told me in your letters from the commands which have come to me from the most pious princes, bidding me abstain for the present from compelling them.  I indeed feel with you, and rejoice greatly in your zeal and ardour, with regard to what you have written, and acknowledge myself to have become in many ways your debtor.  Know nevertheless that I shall not cease to write with the greatest zeal and freedom on this same matter to the most serene lords.  Moreover the animosity of the aforesaid most excellent Romanus Patricius ought not to move you, since, as we are above him in place and rank, we ought so much the more to tolerate with forbearance and dignity any light conduct on his part.

If, however, there is any opportunity of prevailing with him, let your Fraternity work upon him, so that we may make peace with Ariulph, if to some small extent we may, since the soldiery have been removed from the city of Rome, as he himself knows.  But the Theodosiacs14481448    I.e. the soldiers of the Theodosian Legion., who have remained here, not having received their pay, are with difficulty induced to guard the walls; and how shall the city subsist, left destitute as it is by all, if it has not peace?

Furthermore, as to the gift redeemed from captivity, about whom you have written to us asking us to enquire into her origin, we would have your Holiness know that an unknown person cannot easily be traced.  But as to what you say about one who has been ordained being ordained again, it is exceedingly ridiculous, and outside the consideration of one disposed as you are, unless perchance some precedent is adduced which ought to be taken into account in judging him who is alleged to have done any such thing.  But far be it from your Fraternity to entertain such a view.  For, as one who has been once baptized ought not to be baptized again, so one who has been once consecrated cannot be consecrated again to the same order.  But in case of any one’s attainment of the priesthood having been accompanied by slight misdemeanour, he ought to be adjudged to penance for the misdemeanour, and yet return his orders.

With regard to the city of Naples14491449    With respect to Rome Gregory has already complained that the Exarch would neither send forces for its defence nor allow peace to be made with Ariulph.  So also with regard to Naples, which Gregory understands to be now threatened by the Lombards.  The Exarch, it appears, had been urgent in insisting that it should hold out against the enemy (“excellentissimo exarcho instanter imminente”), but without giving any help for the purpose.  What Gregory here says is that without aid from the Exarch its defence was hopeless., in view of the urgent insistance of the most excellent Exarch, we give you to understand that Arigis14501450    Aragis was the Lombard duke of Beneventum., as we have ascertained, has associated himself with Ariulph, and is breaking his faith to the republic, and plotting much against this same city; to which unless a duke be speedily sent, it may already be reckoned among the lost.

As to what you say to the effect that alms should be sent to the city of the schismatic Severus which has been burnt14511451    Viz. Aquileia, of which Severus was bishop and Metropolitan, called here schismaticus because of his holding out against Rome in the matter of the Three Chapters.  The bribes he is said below to have sent to Constantinople would be for inducing the Emperor to take his part against Gregory., your Fraternity is of this opinion as being ignorant of the bribes that he sends to the Court in opposition to us.  And, even though these were not sent, we should have to consider that compassion is to be shewn first to the faithful, and afterwards to the enemies of the Church.  For indeed there is near at hand the city Fanum, in which many have been taken captive, and to which I have already in the past year desired to send alms, but did not venture to do so through the midst of the enemy.  It therefore seems to me that you should send the Abbot Claudius thither with a certain amount of money, in order to redeem the freemen whom he may find there detained in slavery for ransom, or any who are still in captivity.  But, as to the sum of money to be thus sent, be assured that whatever you determine will please me.  If, moreover, you are treating with the most excellent Romanus Patricius for allowing us to make peace with Ariulph, I am prepared to send another person to you, with whom questions of ransom may be better arranged.

Concerning our brother and fellow-bishop Natalis14521452    See above, Ep. 20, in this Book, and I. 19, note 5, where references to other Epistles are given. I was at one time greatly distressed, in that I had found him acting haughtily in certain matters; but, since he has himself amended his manners, he has overcome me and consoled my distress.  In connexion with this matter admonish our brother and fellow-bishop Malchus14531453    See II. 20, note 5. that before he comes to us he render his accounts, and then depart elsewhere if it is necessary.  And if we find his conduct good, it will perhaps be necessary for us to restore to him the patrimony which he had charge of.


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