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NPNF-212. Leo the Great, Gregory the Great
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Epistle XXXII.

To Peter, Subdeacon of Sicily.

Gregory to Peter, &c.

By information received from Romanus the guardian (defensore) I have learnt that the monastery of handmaidens of God which is on the farm of Monotheus has suffered wrong from our church of Villa Nova with respect to a farm belonging to the latter, which is said to have been leased to the said monastery.  If this is so, let thy Experience restore to them the farm, and also the payments from the same farm for the two indictions during which thou hast exacted them.  Moreover, since many of the Jews dwell on the estates of the Church, I desire that, if any of them should be willing to become Christians, some little of their dues be remitted to them, to the end that others also, incited by this benefit, may be moved to a like desire.

Cows which are now barren from age, or bulls which appear to be quite useless, ought to be sold, so that at least some profit may accrue from their price.  But as to the herds of mares which we keep very unprofitably, I wish them all to be dispersed, and four hundred only of the younger kept for breeding; which four hundred ought to be presented to the farmers14231423    Conductores.  See I. 44, note 6.—so many to each, to the end that they may make some return to us from them in successive years:  for it is very hard for us to spend sixty solidi on the herdsmen, and not get sixty pence from these same herds.  Let then thy Experience so proceed that some may be divided among all the farmers, and others dispersed and converted into money.  But so arrange with the herdsmen themselves throughout our possessions that they may be able to make some profit by cultivation of the ground.  All the implements which, either at Syracuse or at Panormus, can be claimed by the Church must be sold before they perish entirely from age.

On the arrival of the servant of God, brother Cyriacus, at Rome I questioned him closely as to whether he had communicated with thee about the receiving of a bribe in the cause of a certain woman.  And the same brother says that he had learnt the state of the case from thy telling him, for that he had been commissioned by thee to ascertain who was the person commissioned to pay the bribe.  This I believed, and immediately received him familiarly into favour, introduced him to the people and clergy, increased his stipend14241424    Presbyterium.  The term, as here used, means apparently a pecuniary allowance to presbyters.  Cf. V. 33, Ad Gaudentiam Episcopum; “Fraternitatem tuam præsentibus hortamur affatibus ut clericis Capuanæ Ecclesiæ quartam in presbyterium eorum de hoc quod ante dictæ ecclesiæ singulis annis accesserit juxta antiquam consuetudinem distribuere secundum personarum studeat qualitatem, quatenus aliquod stipendiorum habentes solatium, ministerium officiumque suum circa eamdem ecclesiam devotiore mente provocentur impendere.”, placed him in a superior rank among the guardians, praising his fidelity before all, in that he had acquitted himself so faithfully in thy service; and I have consequently sent him back to thee.  But, inasmuch as thou art in great haste, and I, though sick, am desirous of seeing thee, do thou leave some one whom thou hast fully proved to take thy place in the Syracusan district, and thyself make haste to come to me, that, if it should please Almighty God, we may consult together as to whether thou thyself oughtest to return thither or another person should be appointed in thy place.  At the same time I have sent Benenatus the notary to occupy thy place in the patrimony in the district of Panormus till such time as Almighty God may ordain what pleases Him.

I have strongly rebuked Romanus for his levity, because in the Guest-house (xenodochium) which he kept, as I have now discovered, he has been taken up more with his own profits than with [heavenly] rewards.  Him, therefore, if it should haply seem good to thee, leave in thy place.  See how thou mayest best fortify him, by alarming and admonishing him, that he may act kindly and carefully towards the peasants (rusticos14251425    See I. 44, note 1.); and shew himself towards strangers and townspeople changed and active.  In saying this, however, I am not selecting any person, but leave this to thy judgment.  It is enough for me to have selected an occupier of thy place in the district of Panormus; and I wish thee to see thyself to providing one for the Syracusan district.  When thou comest, bring with thee the moneys and ornaments (ornamenta) on the part, or of the substance of Antoninus.  Bring also the payments of the ninth and tenth indictions which thou hast exacted, and with them all thy accounts.  Take care, if it should please God, to cross the sea for this city before the anniversary of Saint Cyprian, lest any danger should ensue (which God forbid) from the constellation which always threatens the sea at that season.

Furthermore, I would have thee know that I have no slight compunctions of mind for having been grievously set against the servant of God Pretiosus for no grievous fault of his, and driven him from me, sad and embittered.  And I wrote to the Lord bishop14261426    Maximianus (as appears from Epistle 34), whom Gregory had himself appointed bishop of Syracuse.  Cf. II. 7, and note. requesting him to send the man to me, if willing to do so; but he was altogether unwilling.  Now him I ought not to distress, nor can I do so; since, occupied as he is in the causes of God, he ought to be supported by comfort, not depressed by bitterness.  But the said Pretiosus, as I hear, is altogether distressed because he cannot return to me.  I, however, as I have said, cannot distress the Lord bishop, who is not willing to send him, and I am doubtful between the two.  Do thou then, if in thy little diminutive body thou hast the greater wisdom, manage the matter so that I may have my will, and the Lord bishop be not distressed.  Yet, if thou see him to be at all distressed, say no more about it.  I have, however, taken it amiss that he has excommunicated the Lord Eusebius14271427    This Eusebius was an abbot in Sicily.  Letters follow about him to Maximianus (Ep. 34), and to him (Ep. 36)., a man of so great age and in such bad health.  Wherefore it is needful for thee to speak privately to the said Lord bishop, that he be not hasty in pronouncing sentences, since cases which are to be decided by sentences must needs be weighed beforehand with careful and very frequent consideration.

When the recruiting officers14281428    Scribonibus.  The term denoted officers sent from the imperial court into the provinces for executing certain duties; in this case for raising recruits for the imperial army.  Cf. V. 30, note 8. come, who, as I hear, are already raising recruits in Sicily, charge thy substitute to offer them some little present14291429    Parum aliquid xenii.  On xenia, see II. 23, note 8., so as to render them well-disposed towards him.  But, before thou comest away, give also something, according to ancient custom, to the prætor’s officials; but do it by the hands of him thou leavest in thy place, so as to conciliate their favour towards him.  Also, lest we should seem to them to be at all uncivil, direct thy substitutes to carry out in all respects the orders we have given to thy Experience as to what is to be given to any individuals or monasteries.  But when thou comest, we will, with the help of God consider together how these things should be arranged.  The three hundred solidi which I sent to be given through thee to the poor I do not think ought to be committed to their discretion.  Let them carry out, then, those directions I have spoken of with reference to particular places and persons.

Now I remember having written before now to say that the legacies, which, according to the representation of Antoninus the guardian (defensoris), are due from us to monasteries or others, were to be paid as had been appointed.  And I know not why thy Experience has delayed to accomplish this.  Wherefore we desire thee to pay in full our portion of these legacies from the moneys of the church, that when thou comest to me, thou mayest not leave there the groans of the poor against thee.  Bring also with thee at the same time the securities which have been found relating to the substance of the same Antoninus.

I have learnt on the information of Romanus that the wife of Redemptus, when dying, directed by word of mouth one silver shell to be sold, and the proceeds given to her freedmen, and also left a silver platter to a certain monastery; in respect of both of which bequests we desire her wishes to be fully carried out, lest from the least things we be betrayed into greater sins.

Further, I have learnt on the information of the Abbot Marinianus that the building in the Prætorian Monastery is not yet even half completed:  which being the case, what can we praise for it but thy Experience’s fervour14301430    We note here the sarcastic vein in which Gregory from time to time pleasantly stimulates Peter to activity.?  But even now let this admonition rouse thee; and, as far as thou canst, assert thyself in the construction of this same monastery.  I said that nothing was to be given them for the cost; but I did not prohibit their building the monastery.  But so proceed as to enjoin in all ways on him whom thou mayest depute in thy place at Panormus that he construct this same monastery at the charge of the ecclesiastical revenue, and that I may have no more private complaints from the abbot.

Moreover, I have learnt that thou knowest certain things on the farms, even in considerable numbers, to belong to others; but, owing to the entreaty of certain persons or to timidity, thou art afraid to restore them to their owners.  But, if thou wert truly a Christian, thou wouldest be afraid of the judgment of God more than of the voices of men.  Take notice that I unceasingly admonish thee on this matter; which if thou neglect to set right, thou wilt have also my voice for witness against thee.  If thou shouldest find any of the laity fearing God who might receive the tonsure and become agents under the rector14311431    I.e. the rector patrimonii.  The purport of this direction seems be that agents from the laity might be appointed with advantage to assist the rector patrimonii; and these must first be made clerici by receiving the tonsure, so as to be qualified to act for the Church.  The rectors themselves were usually at least subdeacons., I give my full con sent.  It will be necessary that letters also be sent to them.

Concerning the case of the son of Commissus the scholasticus14321432    Scholastici.  The designation appears to have been applied generally to scholarly and learned persons.  Cf. Hieron. in Catal. Scriptor. Eccles., “Serapion ob elegantiam ingenii cognomen scholastici meruit.”  In Gregory’s Epistles it seems to denote usually men learned in the law, who might advise on legal points or sit as assessors.  In I. 44 (to Peter the subdeacon) scholastici are spoken of as having given a legal opinion, Epistle 36 in Bk. IX. is addressed “Severo scholastico exarchi,” and he is spoken of as one of those “qui assistant judicibus.”  Cf. also IX. 58, 59, for the employment of “Martinus Scholasticus, vir eloquentissimus,” in a case of disputed jurisdiction over the primate of the African province of Bizacia.  Such scholastici were evidently persons of importance.  Gregory addresses them by the title of “Gloria vestra” (IV. 40), and of “Magnitudo tua” (IX. 58).  In IX. 12 he speaks of the form of prayer which followed the words of institution in the Canon of the Mass as having been composed by a scholasticus (precem quam scholasticus composuerat), perhaps using the term in the general sense of a scholar., thou hast taken advice; and it appears that what he claims is not just in law.  We are unwilling to burden the poor to their disadvantage; but, inasmuch as he has given himself trouble in this matter, we desire thee to give him fifty solidi, which must certainly be charged in thy accounts.  As to the expense thou hast incurred on the business of the Church in the case of Prochisus, either reimburse thyself there out of his revenues, or, should his revenues be clearly insufficient for the repayment, thou must needs receive what is due to thee here from the deacon.  But presume not to say anything about Gelasius the subdeacon, since his crime calls for the severest penance even to the end of his life.

Furthermore, thou has sent me one sorry nag and five good asses.  That nag I cannot ride, he is such a sorry one; and those good asses I cannot ride, because they are asses.  But we beg that, if you are disposed to content us, you will let us have something suitable.  We desire thee to give to the abbot Eusebius a hundred solidi of gold, which must certainly be charged in thy accounts.  We have learnt that Sisinnius, who was a judge at Samnium, is suffering from grievous want in Sicily, to whom we desire thee to supply twenty decimates14331433    See I. 46, note. of wine and four solidi yearly.  Anastasius, a religious person (religiosus14341434    See I. 61, note 7.), is said to be living near the city of Panormus in the oratory of Saint Agna, to whom we desire six solidi of gold to be given.  We desire also six solidi, to be charged in thy accounts, to be given to the mother of Urbicus the Prior14351435    Præpositi.  The word, though used also in a more general sense, usually denotes the Prior of a monastery, appointed as the Abbot’s vice-gerent..  As to the case of the handmaiden of God, Honorata, what seems good to me is this:  that thou shouldest bring with thee when thou comest all her substance which evidently existed before the time of the episcopate of John, bishop of Laurinum14361436    Episcopi Laurinensis.  If the reading is correct, the See intended is unknown.  Holstein (Annot. in Geograph. Sacra, p. 21) suggests Carinensem, denoting the Sicilian See of Carine, or Camarina..  But let the same handmaiden of God come with her son, that we may speak with her, and do whatever may please God.  The volume of the Heptateuch14371437    I.e. the first seven books of the Bible. out of the goods of Antoninus we desire to be given to the Prætorian monastery, and the rest of his books to be brought hither by thee.


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