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NPNF1-02. St. Augustine's City of God and Christian Doctrine
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Chapter 30.—That in the Books of the Old Testament, Where It is Said that God Shall Judge the World, the Person of Christ is Not Explicitly Indicated, But It Plainly Appears from Some Passages in Which the Lord God Speaks that Christ is Meant.

There are many other passages of Scripture bearing on the last judgment of God,—so many, indeed, that to cite them all would swell this book to an unpardonable size.  Suffice it to have proved that both Old and New Testament enounce the judgment.  But in the Old it is not so definitely declared as in the New that the judgment shall be administered by Christ, that is, that Christ shall descend from heaven as the Judge; for when it is therein stated by the Lord God or His prophet that the Lord God shall come, we do not necessarily understand this of Christ.  For both the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost are the Lord God.  We must not, however, leave this without proof.  And therefore we must first show how Jesus Christ speaks in the prophetical books under the title of the Lord God, while yet there can be no doubt that it is Jesus Christ who speaks; so that in other passages where this is not at once apparent, and where nevertheless it is said that the Lord God will come to that last judgment, we may understand that Jesus Christ is meant.  There is a passage in the prophet Isaiah which illustrates what I mean.  For God says by the prophet, “Hear me, Jacob and Israel, whom I call.  I am the first, and I am for ever:  and my hand has founded the earth, and my right hand has established the heaven.  I will call them, and they shall stand together, and be gathered, and hear.  Who has declared to them these things?  In love of thee I have done thy pleasure upon Babylon, that I might take away the seed of the Chaldeans.  I have spoken, and I have called:  I have brought him, and have made his way prosperous.  Come ye near unto me, and hear this.  I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; when they were made, there was I.  And now the Lord God and His Spirit hath sent me.”14771477    Isa. xlviii. 12-16.  It was Himself who was speaking as the Lord God; and yet we should not have understood that it was Jesus Christ had He not added, “And now the Lord God and His Spirit hath sent me.”  For He said this with reference to the form of a servant, speaking of a future event as if it were past, as in the same prophet we read, “He was led as a sheep to the slaughter,”14781478    Isa. liii. 7. not “He shall be led;” but the past tense is used to express the future.  And prophecy constantly speaks in this way.

There is also another passage in Zechariah which plainly declares that the Almighty sent the Almighty; and of what persons can this be understood but of God the Father and God the Son?  For it is written, “Thus saith the Lord Almighty, After the glory hath He sent me unto the nations which spoiled you; for he that toucheth you toucheth the apple of His eye.  Behold, I will bring mine hand upon them, and they shall be a spoil to their servants:  and ye shall know that the Lord Almighty hath sent me.”14791479    Zech. ii. 8, 9.  Observe, the Lord Almighty saith that the Lord Almighty sent Him.  Who can presume to understand these words of any other than Christ, who is speaking to the lost sheep of the house of Israel?  For He says in the Gospel, “I am not sent save to the lost sheep of the house of Israel,”14801480    Matt. xv. 24. which He here compared to the pupil of God’s eye, to signify the profoundest love.  And to this class of sheep the apostles themselves belonged.  But after the glory, to wit, of His resurrection,—for before it happened the evangelist said that “Jesus was not yet glorified,”14811481    John vii. 39.—He was sent unto the nations in the persons of His apostles; and thus the saying of the psalm was fulfilled, “Thou wilt deliver me from the contradictions of the people; Thou wilt set me as the head of the nations,”14821482    Ps. xviii. 43. so that those who had spoiled the Israelites, and whom the Israelites had served when they were subdued by them, were not themselves to be spoiled in the same fashion, but were in their own persons to become the spoil of the Israelites.  For this had been promised to the apostles when the Lord said, “I will make you fishers of men.”14831483    Matt. iv. 19.  And to one of them He says, “From henceforth thou shalt catch men.”14841484    Luke v. 10.  They were then to become a spoil, but in a good sense, as those who are snatched from that strong one when he is bound by a stronger.14851485    Matt. xii. 29.

In like manner the Lord, speaking by the same prophet, says, “And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem.  And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and mercy; and they shall look upon me because they have insulted me, and they shall mourn for Him as for one very dear, and shall be in bitterness as for an only-begotten.”14861486    Zech. xii. 9, 10.  To whom but to God does it belong to destroy all the nations that are hostile to the holy city Jerusalem, which “come against it,” that is, are opposed to it, or, as some translate, “come upon it,” as if putting it down under them; or to pour out upon the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem the spirit of grace and mercy?  This belongs doubtless to God, and it is to God the prophet ascribes the words; and yet Christ shows that He is the God who does these so great and divine things, when He goes on to say, “And they shall look upon me because they have insulted me, and they shall mourn for Him as if for one very dear (or beloved), and shall be in bitterness for Him as for an only-begotten.”  For in that day the Jews—those of them, at least, who shall receive the spirit of grace and mercy—when they see Him coming in His majesty, and recognize that it is He whom they, in the person of their parents, insulted when He came before in His humiliation, shall repent of insulting Him in His passion:  and their parents themselves, who were the perpetrators of this huge impiety, shall see Him when they rise; but this will be only for their punishment, and not for their correction.  It is not of them we are to understand the words, “And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and mercy, and they shall look upon me because they have insulted me;” but we are to understand the words of their descendants, who shall at that time believe through Elias.  But as we say to the Jews, You killed Christ, although it was their parents who did so, so these persons shall grieve that they in some sort did what their progenitors did.  Although, therefore, those that receive the spirit of mercy and grace, and believe, shall not be condemned with their impious parents, yet they shall mourn as if they themselves had done what their parents did.  Their grief shall arise not so much from guilt as from pious affection.  Certainly the words which the Septuagint have translated, “They shall look upon me because they insulted me,” stand in the Hebrew,“They shall look upon me whom they pierced.”14871487    So the Vulgate.  And by this word the crucifixion of Christ is certainly more plainly indicated.  But the Septuagint translators preferred to allude to the insult which was involved in His whole passion.  For in point of fact they insulted Him both when He was arrested and when He was bound, when He was judged, when He was mocked by the robe they put on Him and the homage they did on bended knee, when He was crowned with thorns and struck with a rod on the head, when He bore His cross, and when at last He hung upon the tree.  And therefore we recognize more fully the Lord’s passion when we do not confine ourselves to one interpretation, but combine both, and read both “insulted” and “pierced.”

When, therefore, we read in the prophetical books that God is to come to do judgment at the last, from the mere mention of the judgment, and although there is nothing else to determine the meaning, we must gather that Christ is meant; for though the Father will judge, He will judge by the coming of the Son.  For He Himself, by His own manifested presence, “judges no man, but has committed all judgment to the Son;”14881488    John v. 22. for as the Son was judged as a man, He shall also judge in human form.  For it is none but He of whom God speaks by Isaiah under the name of Jacob and Israel, of whose seed Christ took a body, as it is written, “Jacob is my servant, I will uphold Him; Israel is mine elect, my Spirit has assumed Him:  I have put my Spirit upon Him; He shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.  He shall not cry, nor cease, neither shall His voice be heard without.  A bruised reed shall He not break, and the smoking flax shall He not quench:  but in truth shall He bring forth judgment.  He shall shine and shall not be broken, until He sets judgment in the earth:  and the nations shall hope in His name.”14891489    Isa. xlii. 1–4.  The Hebrew has not “Jacob” and “Israel;” but the Septuagint translators, wishing to show the significance of the expression “my servant,” and that it refers to the form of a servant in which the Most High humbled Himself, inserted the name of that man from whose stock He took the form of a servant.  The Holy Spirit was given to Him, and was manifested, as the evangelist testifies, in the form of a dove.14901490    John i. 32.  He brought forth judgment to the Gentiles, because He predicted what was hidden from them.  In His meekness He did not cry, nor did He cease to proclaim the truth.  But His voice was not heard, nor is it heard, without, because He is not obeyed by those who are outside of His body.  And the Jews themselves, who persecuted Him, He did not break, though as a bruised reed they had lost their integrity, and as smoking flax their light was quenched; for He spared them, having come to be judged and not yet to judge.  He brought forth judgment in truth, declaring that they should be punished did they persist in their wickedness.  His face shone on the Mount,14911491    Matt. xvii. 1, 2. His fame in the world.  He is not broken nor overcome, because neither in Himself nor in His Church has persecution prevailed to annihilate Him.  And therefore that has not, and shall not, be brought about which His enemies said or say, “When shall He die, and His name perish?”14921492    Ps. xli. 5. “until He set judgment in the earth.”  Behold, the hidden thing which we were seeking is discovered.  For this is the last judgment, which He will set in the earth when He comes from heaven.  And it is in Him, too, we already see the concluding expression of the prophecy fulfilled:  “In His name shall the nations hope.”  And by this fulfillment, which no one can deny, men are encouraged to believe in that which is most impudently denied.  For who could have hoped for that which even those who do not yet believe in Christ now see fulfilled among us, and which is so undeniable that they can but gnash their teeth and pine away?  Who, I say, could have hoped that the nations would hope in the name of Christ, when He was arrested, bound, scourged, mocked, crucified, when even the disciples themselves had lost the hope which they had begun to have in Him?  The hope which was then entertained scarcely by the one thief on the cross, is now cherished by nations everywhere on the earth, who are marked with the sign of the cross on which He died that they may not die eternally.

That the last judgment, then, shall be administered by Jesus Christ in the manner predicted in the sacred writings is denied or doubted by no one, unless by those who, through some incredible animosity or blindness, decline to believe these writings, though already their truth is demonstrated to all the world.  And at or in connection with that judgment the following events shall come to pass, as we have learned:  Elias the Tishbite shall come; the Jews shall believe; Antichrist shall persecute; Christ shall judge; the dead shall rise; the good and the wicked shall be separated; the world shall be burned and renewed.  All these things, we believe, shall come to pass; but how, or in what order, human understanding cannot perfectly teach us, but only the experience of the events themselves.  My opinion, however, is, that they will happen in the order in which I have related them.

Two books yet remain to be written by me, in order to complete, by God’s help, what I promised.  One of these will explain the punishment of the wicked, the other the happiness of the righteous; and in them I shall be at special pains to refute, by God’s grace, the arguments by which some unhappy creatures seem to themselves to undermine the divine promises and threatenings, and to ridicule as empty words statements which are the most salutary nutriment of faith.  But they who are instructed in divine things hold the truth and omnipotence of God to be the strongest arguments in favor of those things which, however incredible they seem to men, are yet contained in the Scriptures, whose truth has already in many ways been proved; for they are sure that God can in no wise lie, and that He can do what is impossible to the unbelieving.


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