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New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. IX: Petri - Reuchlin
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NEW

SCHAFF-HERZOG

ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

Editor-in-Chief

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

Editor-in-Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes

LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

Associate Professor of Church History

Princeton Theological Seminary

BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

THE NEW

SCHAFF-HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE

EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(Editor-in-Chief)

WITH THE ASSISTANCE, AFTER VOLUME VI., OF

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(Associate Editor)

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT EDITORS

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D. JAMES FREDERIC McCURDY, PH.D., LL.D.
(Department of Systematic Theology) (Department of the Old Testament)
HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D. HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.
(Department of Minor Denominations) (Department of the New Testament)
JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D. ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.
(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders) (Department of Church History)
FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A.
(Department of Pronunciation and Typography)

VOLUME IX

PETRI ― REUCHLIN


BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1953

EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS

PHOTOLITHOPRINTED BY CUSHING—MALLOY, INC.

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

1953

EDITORS


SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(Editor-in-Chief.)

Professor of Church History, New York University.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(Associate Editor.)

Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion,

Bangor Theological Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME IX.
CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D. JAMES FREDERICK McCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology.)

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological Seminary.

(Department of the Old Testament.)

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D. HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

(Department of the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D. ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Liturgies and Religious Orders.)

Rector of St. Gabriel's New Rochelle, N. Y.

(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Tex.

FRANK HORACE VIZETELLY, F.S.A.,

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.)

Managing Editor of the Standard Dictionary, etc., New York City.


CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IX.
JUSTIN EDWARDS ABBOTT, D.D., CARL BERTHEAU, Th.D.,
Missionary in Bombay, India. Pastor at St. Michael's, Hamburg.
ERNST CHRISTIAN ACHELIS, Th.D., EDWIN MUNSELL BLISS, D.D.
Professor of Practical Theology, University of Marburg. Author of Books on Missions, Washington, D.C.
SAMUEL JUNE BARROWS (†), D.D, THEODORA CROSBY BLISS,
Late corresponding Secretary of the Prison Association, New York. Writer on Missions.
GEORGE JAMES BAYLES, Ph.D., MABEL THORP BOARDMAN
Writer on Civil Church Law. Member of Executive Committee of the American National Red Cross.
DONALD BEATON, HEINRICH BOEHMER, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Minister at Wick, Scotland Professor of Church History, University of Bonn.
CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D. GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL BONWETSCH, Th.D.,
Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological Seminary. Professor of Church History, University of Göttingen..
GEORG BEER, Ph.D., Th.,Lic., GUSTAV BOSSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.
Extraordinary Professor of the Old Testament in the Evangelical Theological Faculty, University of Strasburg. Retired Pastor, Stuttgart.
HENRY BEETS, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH BRANDES, Th.D.,
Stated Clerk of the Synod of the Christian Reformed Church, Editor-in-Chief of The Banner, Grand Rapids, Mich. Reformed Minister and Chaplain at Bückeburg, Schaumburg-Lippe.
KARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D., EDUARD BRATKE (†), Ph.D.,
Professor of Church History, University of Königsberg. Late Professor of Church History, University of Breslau.
IMMANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF BENZINGER, Ph.D., Th.Lic., CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D., Litt.D.,
German Orientalist and Vice-Consul for Holland in Jerusalem. Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
  JOHN BROWN (†),
  Late Pastor at Rentham, Suffolk Co., England.
OSKAR GOTTLIEB RUDOLF BUDDENSIEG (†), Ph.D., PAUL GOTTFRIED DREWS, Th.D.,
Late Director of the Teachers' Seminary in Dresden. Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halle.
FRANTS PEDER WILLIAM BUHL, Ph.D.,Th.D., JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Copenhagen. Pastor of St. Gabriel's, New Rochelle, N. Y.
KARL BURGER (†), Th.D., EMIL EGLI (†), Th.D.,
Late Supreme Consistorial Councilor in Munich. Late Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.
JOHN KENNEDY CAMERON, M.A., CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH DAVID ERDMANN (†), Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Systematic Theology, Free Church College, Edinburgh. Late Professor of Church History, University of Breslau.
HUBERT CARLETON, M.A., JOHN YOUNG EVANS, M.A., B.D.,
Editor of St. Andrew's Cross and General Secretary of the Brotherhood of St. Andrew, Boston. Professor in Trevecca College, Aberwystwyth, Wales.
HEREWARD CARRINGTON, JOHN OLUF EVJEN, Ph.D.,
Writer on Psychical Research. Professor of Theology in Augsburg Theological Seminary, Minneapolis, Minn.
HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D., PAUL JOHANNES FICKER, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference. Professor of Church History, Strasburg.
WALTER AUGUST ANTON NATHAN CASPARI, Ph.D., Th.D., FRITZ FLEINER, Dr.Jur.,
University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology, University of Erlangen. Professor of Law, University of Heidelberg.
JACQUES EUGÈNE CHOISY, Th.D., ROBERT VERRELL FOSTER, D.D., LL.D.,
Pastor in Geneva. Professor of Systematic Theology, Cumberland Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Lebanon, Tenn.
FERDINAND COHRS, Th.Lic., GUSTAV WILHELM FRANK (†), Th.D.,
Consistorial Councilor, Ilfeld, Germany. Late Professor of Dogmatics, Symbolics. and Christian Ethics, University of Vienna.
LEIGHTON COLEMAN (†), D.D., FRANZ HERMANN FRANK (†), Th.D.,
Late Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Delaware. Late Professor of Theology, University of Erlangen.
WILLIAM RUSSELL COLLINS, D.D., EMIL ALBERT FRIEDBERG, Th.D., Dr.Jur.,
Professor of Liturgies and Ecclesiastical Polity Reformed Episcopal Theological Seminary, Philadephia. Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public, and German Law, University of Leipsic.
EDWARD TANJORE CORWIN,D.D., WILHELM GERMANN (†), Ph.D.,
Church Historian, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Late Superintendent in Schleusingen, Prussian Saxony.
SAMUEL CRAMER, Th.D., GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.,
Professor of the History of Christianity,. University of Amsterdam, and Professor of Practical Theology, Mennonite Theological Seminary, Amsterdam. Formerly Lecturer on Comparative Religion Bangor Theological Seminary, Associate Editor of The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia.
WILHELM CREIZENACH, Ph.D., FRANZ GOERRES, Ph.D.,
Professor of German Philology in the University of Cracow. Assistant Librarian, University of Bonn.
HERMANN DALTON, Th.D., WILHELM GOETZ, Ph.D.,
Retired Consistorial Councilor, Berlin. Honorary Professor of Geography Technical High School, and Professor at Military Academy, Munich.
WILLIAM JOHNSON DARBY, D.D., HERMANN FREIHERR VON DER, GOLTZ (†), Th.D.,
Assistant Secretary of the Board of Education of the Presbyterian Church in the United States. Late Professor of Dogmatics, University of Berlin.
EDWIN CHARLES DARGAN, D.D., LL.D., JAMES ISAAC GOOD, D.D.,
Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Macon, Georgia. Professor of Reformed Church History and Liturgics, Central Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio.
JOHN D. DAVIS, D.D., LL.D., Ph.D., WILLIAM ELLIOT GRIFFIS, D.D., L.H.D.,
Professor of Oriental and Old Testament Literature, Princeton Theological Seminary. Author and Lecturer on Historical Subjects, Ithaca, N. Y.
JULIUS DECKE, PAUL GRUENBERG, Th.D.,
Church Inspector, Breslau. Pastor in Strasburg.
MORTON DEXTER (†) M.A., CARL VON GRUENEISEN (†), D.D.,
Late Congregational Clergyman and Author. Boston. Late Court Preacher in Stuttgart.
FRIEDRICH CARL OTTO DIBELIUS, Ph.D., Th.Lic., GEORG GRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,
Archdeacon at Crossen, Germany. Extraordinary Professor of Church History, University of Heidelberg.
ERNST VON DOBSCHUETZ, Th.D., RICHARD HEINRICH GRUETZMACHER, Th.D.,
Professor of New-Testament Exegesis, University of Breslau. Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock.
LEONHARD ERNST DORN, HERMANN GUTHE, Th.D.,
Head Preacher, Nördlingen, Bavaria. Professor of Old-Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.
WILLIE KIRKPATRICK DOUGLAS, ARTHUR CRAWSHAY ALLISTON HALL, D.D., LL.D.,
Dean of Due West Female College, Due West, S.C. Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Vermont.
ADOLF HARNACK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr. Jur., M.D., THEODOR FRIEDRICH HERMANN KOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,
General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin. Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen.
ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.Jur., HERMANN GUSTAV EDUARD KRUEGER, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Church History, University of Leipsic, Editor-in-Chief of the Hauck-Herzog Realencyklopädie. Professor of Church History, University of Giessen.
JOHANNES HAUSSLEITER Ph.D., Th.D., JOHANNES WILHELM KUNZE, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Consistorial Councilor Professor of New-Testament Theology and Exegesis, University of Greifswald. Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology, University of Greifswald.
CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG HEINRICI, Ph.D., Th.D., EUGEN LACHENMANN,
Professor of New-Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic. City Pastor, Leonberg, Württemberg.
MAX HEINZE (†), Ph.D., Th.D., LUDWIG LEMME, Th.D.,
Late Professor of Philosophy, University of Leipsic. Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg.
LUDWIG THEODOR EDGAR HENNECKE, Ph.D., Th.Lic., ORLANDO FAULKLAND LEWIS,
Pastor at Betheln, Hanover. Corresponding Secretary of the Prison Association and Secretary of the Finance Committee of the Charity Organisation Society, New York.
WILHELM HERRMANN, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.Jur., FRIEDRICH LEZIUS , Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Marburg. Professor of Church History, University of Königsberg.
JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (†), Ph.D., Th.D., FRIEDRICH LIST (†), Ph.D.,
Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen. Late Studiendirektor, Munich.
RICHARD MORSE HODGE, D.D., PAUL LOBSTEIN, Th.D.,
Lecturer in Biblical Literature, Teachers' College, New York City. Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Strasburg.
GUSTAV HOENNICKE, Ph.D., Th.Lic., GEORG LOESCHE, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Privat-docent in New-Testament Exegesis, University of Berlin. Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological Faculty, University of Vienna.
OSWALD HOLDER-EGGER, Ph.D., FRIEDRICH ARMIN LOOFS, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor at Berlin and Director for the Publication of the Monumenta Germaniæ Historica. Professor of Church History, University of Halle.
WILHELM HOELSCHER, Th.D., WILLIAM JAMES LOWE, D.D.,
Pastor of St. Nicolaikirche, Leipsic. Clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
ERNST IDELER, JOHN LYND, D.D.,
Pastor at Ahrensdorf, near Potsdam. Professor of Hebrew and Biblical Criticism, Theological, Hall of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod, Belfast.
JOHANN FRIEDRICH IKEN (†), SAMUEL McCOMB, D.D.,
Late Pastor in Bremen. Pastor of Emmanuel Church, Boston, Mass.
HEINRICH FRANZ JACOBSON (†), Ph.D., JOHN McDONALD, M.A., D.D.,
Late Professor of Law, University of Königsberg. Clerk of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod in Scotland.
FERDINAND FRIEDRICH WILHELM KATTENBUSCH, Ph.D., Th.D., GEORGE DUNCAN MATHEWS,
Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halle. General Secretary of the Presbyterian Alliance, London.
PETER GUSTAV KAWERAU, Th.D., PAUL MEHLHORN, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Consistorial Councilor, Professor of Practical Theology, and University Preacher, University of Breslau. Pastor of the Reformed Church, Leipsic.
OTTO KIRN, Ph.D., Th.D., OTTO MEJER (†), Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Dogmatics, University of Leipsic. Late President of the Consistory, Hanover.
RUDOLF KITTEL, Ph.D., Th.D., PHILIPP MEYER, Th.D.,
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic. Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Hanover.
KARL RUDOLF KLOSE (†), Th.D., CARL THEODOR MIRBT, Th.D.,
Late Secretary of the Library, Hamburg. Professor of Church History, University of Marburg.
EDWARD HOOKER KNIGHT, D.D., ROBERT MORTON,
Dean of the Hartford School of Religious Pedagogy, Hartford, Conn. Professor of Systematic Theology and Church History in Original Secession Theological Hall, Glasgow, Scotland.
JUSTUS ADOLF KOEBERLE (†), Th.D., ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL MUELLER, Th.D.,
Late Professor of the Old Testament, University of Rostock. Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen.
HEINRICH ADOLF KOESTLIN (†), Ph.D., Th.D., GEORG MUELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Late Privy Councilor in Cannstadt, formerly Professor of Theology, University of Giessen. Inspector of Schools, Leipsic.
CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH ADOLF KOLB, Th.D., PEARSON M’ADAM MUIR, D.D.,
Prelate and Court Preacher, Ludwigsburg. Minister of Glasgow Cathedral, Glasgow, Scotland.
HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.,
   Professor of the Literature and Inyerpretation of the New Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.
  CHRISTOF EBERHARD NESTLE, Ph.D., Th.D.,
  Professor in the Theological Seminary, Maulbronn, Württemberg.
ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D., EMIL SEHLING, Dr.Jur.,
Professor of Church History, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas. Professor of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law, University of Erlangen.
FREDERICK KRISTIAN NIELSEN (†), D.D., HENRY CLAY SHELDON, D.D.,
Late Bishop of Aarhus, Denmark. Professor of Systematic Theology, Boston University.
CONRAD VON ORELLI, Ph.D., Th.D., FRIEDRICH ANTON EMIL SIEFFERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Professor of Old-Testament Exegesis and History of Religion, University of Basel. Professor of New-Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn.
CARL PFENDER, JULIUS WILHELM SMEND, Th.D.,
Pastor of St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Paris. Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology in the Evangelical Theological Faculty, University of Strasburg.
FERDINAND PHILIPPI (†), Th.D., JOHN SOMERVILLE, D.D.,
Late Pastor in Hohenkirchen, Mecklenburg. Clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Canada.
FINIS HOMER PRENDERGAST, ROBERT MACGOWAN SOMMERVILLE,
Attorney, Marshall, Texas. Editor of Olive Trees, New York City.
ERWIN PREUSCHEN, Ph.D., Th.D., GEORG STEINDORFF, Ph.D.,
Pastor at Hirschhorn-on-the-Neckar, Germany. Professor of Egyptology, University of Leipsic.
RICHARD CLARK REED, D.D., LL.D., ROBERT WILLIAM STEWART, B.Sc., B.D.,
Professor of Church History in Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Columbia, S. C. Glasgow, Scotland.
JOSEPH REINKENS (†), Ph.D., HERMANN LEBERECHT STRACK, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Late Professor in Cologne. Extraordinary Professor of Old-Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages, University of Berlin.
ROBERT THOMAS ROBERTS, D.D., ULRICH STUTZ, Dr.Jur.,
Pastor First Welsh Presbyterian Church, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. Professor of German and Ecclesiastical Law, University of Bonn.
WILLIAM HENRY ROBERTS, D.D., LL.D., ROBERT BREWSTER TAGGART,
Stated Clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A. Vineland, N. J.
HENDRIX CORNELIS ROGGE (†), Ph.D., CHARLES FRANKLIN THWING, LL.D.,
Late Professor of History, University of Haarlem. President of Western Reserve University and Adalbert College, Cleveland.
ARNOLD RÜEGG, PAUL TSCHACKERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Pastor at Birmensdorf and Lecturer at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Professor of Church History, University of Göttingen.
CARL SCHAARSCHMIDT, SIETSE DOUWES VAN VEEN, Th.D.,
Honorary Professor of Philosophy, University of Bonn. Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology, University of Utrecht.
ERICH SCHAEDER, Ph.D., Th.D., JULIUS AUGUST WAGENMANN (†),
Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Kiel. Late Consistorial Councilor, Göttingen.
THEODOR SCHAEFER, Th.D., BENJAMIN BRECKINRIDGE WARFIELD, D.D., LL.D.,
Head of the Deaconess Institute, Altona. Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology, Princeton Theological Seminary.
DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D., EDWARD ELIHU WHITFIELD, M.A.,
Professor of Church History, Western Theological Seminary, Pittsburg, Pa. Retired Public Schoolmaster, London.
PHILIP SCHAFF (†), D.D., LL.D., FRIEDRICH LUDWIG LEONHARD WIEGAND, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York, and Editor of the Original Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia. Professor of Church History, University of Greifswald.
MARTIN SCHIAN, Ph.D., Th.D., PAUL WOLFF (†),
Professor of Theology, University of Giessen. Late Pastor at Friedersdorf, Brandenburg, and Editor of the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung.
REINHOLD SCHMID, Th.Lic., AUGUST WUENSCHE, Ph.D., Th.D.,
Pastor in Oberholzheim, Württemberg. Retired Titular Professor in Dresden.
MAXIMILIAN VICTOR SCHULTZE, Th.D., CLARENCE ANDREW YOUNG, Ph.D.,
Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology, University of Greifswald. Pastor, Third Reformed Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, Pa.
LUDWIG THEODOR SCHULZE, Ph.D., Th.D., FRANZ THEODOR RITTER VON ZAHN, Th.D., Litt.D.,
Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock. Professor of New-Testament Exegesis and Introduction, University of Erlangen.
JOHN CRAWFORD SCOULLER, D.D., OTTO ZOECKLER (†), Ph.D., Th.D.,
Corresponding Secretary of Board of Ministerial Relief, United Presbyterian Church of North America. Late Professor of Church History and Apologetics, University of Greifswald.
EMIL SECKEL, Dr.Jur.,  
Professor of Law, University of Berlin.  
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