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For purposes of research and definite information the student is constantly under the necessity of discovering not only lists of works on a given subject, but also initials or full names of authors and place and date of publication and often the exact form of the title of a book inaccurately or partially known. To furnish this information the work which will prove useful beyond all others is the British Museum Catalogue, which with its Supplement records the books received down to 1900; accessions beyond this date are also recorded in supplementary issues. Especially valuable to the theological student are the four parts devoted to the Bibles and Bible-works in the British Museum, though the large number of entries makes it hard to consult these parts. Some help is given by the tables of arrangement. A Subject Index for 1881-1905, ed. G. K. Fortescue, 4 vols., London, 1902-06, makes available a very considerable part of the late literature upon all subjects. Next to this, if indeed not equally valuable so far as it is finished, is the exhaustive work doing for the French National Library and for publications in French what the work just named does for the British. This is the Catalogue général . . . de la Bibiliotheque Nationale, now in course of publication, Paris, 1897 sqq., of which volume xxiv., the last received, carries the list through “Catzius.” The value of these two publications will be more accurately estimated when it is recalled that the two institutions are stated repositories for copyrighted books in the two countries respectively. An important feature of the first volume of the French catalogue is a helpful account of previous catalogues of the French National Library. The English work is in folio, the French in octavo. Perhaps the next best general work is that of J. C. Brunet, Manuel du libraire, 3 vols., Paris, 1810, superseded by the 5th ed., 6 vols., 1860-65, with Supplement, 2 vols., 1878-80. After these two works come in point of usefulness what may be called the national catalogues, recording the books published in Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, and America. For Germany the work was begun in the Allgemeines Bücher-Lexicon, by W. Heinsius, reedited and enlarged by O. A. Schulz, then by F. A. Schiller, covering the period 1700-1851 in 11 volumes, Leipsic, 1812-54, for the earlier period incomplete. This was continued by Hinrichs’ Bücher-Katalog, covering the years 1851-65 in one volume (1875), and from that time to the present by the Fünfjähriger Bücher-Katalog. Half-yearly volumes are published which are superseded in course by the five-year volumes. These were accompanied by a Repertorium up to 1885, which arranged the entries topically. From 1883 on the Repertorium was superseded by a Schlagwort-Katalog, by Georg and L. Ost, Hanover, 1889-1904 (now complete down to 1902), serving as an index to the Hinrichs, and arranging the catch-words alphabetically.
For publications in French there is the Catalogue général de la librairie française, covering the period 1840-99, 15 vols., Paris, 1867-1904, begun by O. Lorenz and continued by D. Jordell, with a Table des matieres or index published at irregular intervals, but exceedingly full and usable. The Table systématique de la bibliographie de la France is an annual list of copyrighted books classified according to subjects, published in Paris.
For British publications the London Catalogue, London, 1846, now very hard to obtain, carries the list of books from 1800 to 1846 with Index to the same. This was continued by the English Catalogue, now complete down to 1905, 7 vols., London, 1864-1905. The three volumes for 1890-1905 are arranged by authors and subjects in one alphabet. For the period 1837-89 there is an Index of Subjects, 4 vols., London, 1858-93. A Yearly Catalogue is issued, which, like the French annuals and German semiannuals, is superseded by the volume covering a series of years.
For modern Italian works the authoritative source is the Catalogo generale della libreria Italians, 1847-99, compilato dal Prof. Attilio Pagliaini, 3 vols., Milan, 1901-05, a work singularly complete for the period it covers.
For American publications the period 1820-71 is inadequately covered by the Bibliotheca Americana, by O. A. Roorbach to 1861, and then by J. Kelly, a set of books rarely on the market. The American Catalogue continues this to the end of 1905 in 6 vols. folio, 2 vols. roy. 8vo, New York, 1880-1906. This was begun by F. Leypoldt and is continued by the Publishers’ Weekly. In this series a Yearly Catalogue is issued, superseded like the other annuals by the larger volume. The whole is being supplemented by Charles Evans with the American Bibliography, a Chronological Dictionary of All . . . Publications . . ., 1689-1820. Of this magnificent work, vols. i.-iv. are issued, Chicago, 1903-07, bringing the titles down to 1773.
For earlier books a valuable set of volumes is L. Hain, Repertorium bibliographicum, 2 vols. in 4 parts and an Index, Stuttgart, 1826-91, giving a list of books printed from the invention of printing to 1500. To this W. A. Copinger has added a Supplement in 2 vols., 3 parts, London, 1895-1902, and Dietrich Reichling, Appendices, in course of preparation and publication, containing corrections and additions, Munich, 1905 sqq.
Valuable as selected and classified lists of general literature, including theology, are Sonnenschein’s Best Books and Reader’s Guide, London, 1891-95. The foregoing are all in the field of general literature and are not specifically theological.
Of specifically Theological Bibliographies, giving lists of literature in the various departments of the science, the older ones have principally a historic value. Some of the best are: J. G. Walch, Bibliotheca theologica selecta, 4 vols., Jena, 1757-65, arranged topically with an index of authors; G. B. Winer, Handbuch der theologischen Litteratur, 3d ed., 3 vols., Leipsic, 1837-42 (gives little literature in English); E. A. Zuchold, Bibliotheca theologica, 2 vols., Göttingen, 1864 (an alphabetical arrangement by authors of books in German issued 1830-62); W. Orme, Bibliotheca theologica, London, 1824 (contains critical notes). One of the older books, often referred to for its lists of editions of Scripture, is J. Le Long, Bibliotheca sacra, 2 vols., Paris, 1709, enlarged by A. G. Masch, 5 vols., Halle, 1778-90. T. H. Horne added to his Introduction a rich bibliography of the works issued before and in his time (also printed separately), London, 1839, which, however, is not found in editions of the Introduction later than that of 1846. An excellent work is that by James Darling, Cyclopædia Bibliographica; a Library Manual of Theological and General Literature, London, 1854, with supplementary volume, 1859, particularly useful as giving the contents of series and even of volumes. A modern production, noting only works in English, is J. F. Hurst, Literature of Theology, New York, 1896, fairly complete up to its date, arranged according to the divisions in Theology and in convenient smaller rubrics, with very full indexes. Unfortunately, it needs supplementing by the literature subsequent to 1895. It is to be hoped that the publishers will see their way to add a supplement, containing the later literature. For Roman Catholic theology consult D. Gla, Systematisch geordnetes Repertorium der katholisch-theologischen Litteratur, Paderborn, 1894. W. T. Lowndes, Bibliographer’s Manual, 4 vols., London, 1834, new edition by Henry G. Bohn, 1857-64, while not exclusively theological, deals largely with curious theological books and is useful for the annotations.
Among the most useful guides to theological literature are the works on Introduction to Theology or on Theological Encyclopedia and Methodology, most of which give classified lists of literature. Schleiermacher’s Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums, Berlin, 1811, 1830, was followed by K. R. Hagenbach, Encyklopädie and Methodologie, Leipsic, 1833, revised by M. Reischle, 1889. This last, though not in its latest form, was practically reproduced by G. R. Crooks and J. F. Hurst, New York, 1884, rev. ed., 1894, with copious lists of literature, English and American, added. Better even than this is A. Cave, Introduction to Theology, 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1896, in which the lists of literature are especially valuable, though the lapse of a decade since the publication makes a new edition desirable. Of very high value for its citation of literature, including Continental, English, and American, is L. Emery, Introduction à l’étude de la théologie protestante, Paris, 1904.
In the way of Biblical and Theological Dictionaries and Encyclopedias the past decade has witnessed great progress. The two great Bible Dictionaries, superseding for English readers all others, are A Dictionary of the Bible, by J. Hastings and J. A. Selbie, 4 vols. and extra volume, Edinburgh and New York, 1898-1904 (comprehensive and fully up to date in the Old Testament subjects, but conservative and often timid in dealing with the New Testament), and Encyclopædia Biblica, by T. K. Cheyne and J. S. Black, 4 vols., London and New York, 1899-1903 (also comprehensive, much more “advanced” in the Old Testament and admitting representation to the “Dutch School” in the New Testament parts, but handicapped by the Jerahmeel theory of Prof. Cheyne). F. Vigouroux, Dictionnaire de la Bible, Paris, 1891 sqq., still in course of publication, has reached “Palestine” with part xxix., and is an excellent specimen of the conservative type of French Biblical scholarship.
In Christian Archeology the work of W. Smith and S. Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, 2 vols., London, 1875-80, is still valuable, and there is no later work in English to take its place. Of high value is F. X. Kraus, Real-Encyklopädie der christlichen Alterthümer, 2 vols., Freiburg, 1881-86. The best work, which must supersede all others because of its extraordinary completeness and fulness, but which has been only recently begun and must take many years to complete under its present plan, is F. Cabrol, Dictionnaire d’archéiologie chrétienne et de liturgie, Paris, 1903 sqq. (parts i.-xii. are out, and bring the reader down to “Baptême”). In a different field, and worthy of high praise, is W. Smith and H. Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects, and Doctrines, 4 vols., London 1877-87, representing the best English scholarship of its day, and, from the nature of its contents, not easily to be superseded. A help to this, particularly in the matter of early Christian writers, is W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 3 vols., new edition, London, 1890.
In the general field of Historical and Doctrinal Theology must be mentioned on the Roman Catholic side the Kirchenlexikon of Wetzer and Welte, 2d ed., begun by Cardinal Hergenröther, continued by F. Kaulen, 12 vols. and Register, Freiburg, 1880-1903. This work must be commended for its accurate scholarship, its admirable regard for proportion, and for the large range of subjects it treats with fairness and with only a suspicion of a tendency toward ultramontanism. Briefer is the Handlexikon der katholischen Theologie, begun by J. Schäfler (continued by J. Sax), 4 vols., Regensburg, 1880-1900. The new Kirchliches Handlexikon of M. Buchberger, Munich, 1904-06 (in progress), is not particularly valuable. The evangelical side of German scholarship is represented by the great work of J. J. Herzog, Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie and Kirche, 3d ed., revised under A. Hauck, Leipsic, 1896 sqq., 18 vols. issued to date. This is the great storehouse of German Protestant theology and the basis of the present work. The most ambitious work of American scholarship is J. McClintock and J. Strong, Cyclopædia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, 10 vols., New York, 1867-1881, with two supplementary volumes, 1884-86 (claims to have over 50,000 titles; necessarily it is now in need of revision). Other works, each having its distinctive field, are: W. F. Hook, A Church Dictionary, 8th ed., London, 1859, reprinted Philadelphia, 1854; J. Eadie, The Ecclesiastical Cyclopedia, ib., 1861; J. H. Blunt, Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology, 2d ed:, ib., 1872; idem, Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, and Schools of Thought, ib., 1891 (both of considerable worth, representing “High Anglicanism”); W. E. Addis and T. Arnold, A Catholic Dictionary, London and New York, 6th ed., 1903; J. Hamburger, Real-Encyklopädie des Judenthums, 3 vols., 3d ed., Leipsic, 1891-1901 (deals with both Biblical and Talmudic subjects; “by a Jew for Jews”); The Jewish Encyclopedia, published under the direction of an editorial board of which I. K. Funk was chairman and Isidore Singer managing editor, 12 vols., New York, 1901-06; F. Lichtenberger, Encyclopédie des sciences religieuses, 13 vols., Paris, 1877-82 (for French Protestants). T. P. Hugh, Dictionary of Islam, London, 1885, is the only encyclopedic work on the subject, but defective and unreliable. In Hymnology there are: H. A. Daniel, Thesaurus hymnologicus, i. Latin hymns, ii. Latin sequences, iii. Greek hymns, iv.-v. supplement to vols. i.-ii., Leipsic, 1841-55 (a storehouse of material often inaccessible elsewhere, but ill digested, inaccurate, and perplexing to consult); E. E. Koch, Geschichte des Kirchenliedes and Kirchengesangs der christlichen . . . Kirche, 3d ed., partly posthumous, 8 vols. and index, 1866-77 (the greatest collection of biographies of hymnists, unfortunately not reliable); the one English cyclopedic work in hymnology is J. Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, London and New York, 1907. A work of immense erudition and alone in its field, which comprehends much that is theological, is J. M. Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, 3 vols., New York, 1901-06 (vol. iii. in 2 parts is devoted to the bibliography of the subject, duly classified).
While most of the Biblical Helps are noted under the appropriate titles in the text, the following are worthy of special mention here. For the Old Testament all the books except Exodus to Deuteronomy were published in handy form in the Hebrew by G. Baer and F. Delitzsch, Leipsic, 1869-95 (the text, though critical, does not concern itself with readings from the versions); the best ed. so far of the complete Hebrew text is C. D. Ginsburg’s Hebrew Bible, 2 vols., London, 1894; the text alone was reprinted in 1906 (the Introduction to the Hebrew Bible by Ginsburg, London, 1897, is the one indispensable handbook to the text); yet a very excellent Biblia Hebraica has been published by R. Kittel with the assistance of Professors G. Beer, F. Buhl, G. Dalman, S. R. Driver, M. Löhr, W. Nowack, J. W. Rothstein, and V. Ryssel, in 2 parts, Leipsic, 1905-06, obtainable also in smaller sections. The new series entitled The Sacred Books of the Old Testament, ed. Paul Haupt, now in course of publication, Leipsic, London, and Baltimore, 1894 sqq., and known generally as the “Rainbow Bible” and less widely as the “Polychrome Bible,” sets forth the composite origin of the books and indicates the separate documents by printing the text on backgrounds of different tints (the critical objection to the series is that as each book is not directly the result of a consensus of scholarship, the effect in each case is the pronouncement of a single scholar and consequent indecisiveness in the verdict). The lexicons which are most worthy of confidence are: W. Gesenius, Thesaurus philologicus criticus linguæ Hebrææ, 3 vols., Leipsic, 1826-53 (indispensable for the thorough student); idem, Hebräisches and Aramäisches Handwörterbuch, 14th ed. by F. Buhl, ib., 1905; and (best for the English student) F. Brown, C. A. Briggs, and S. R. Driver, Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, Oxford and Boston, 1906. Besides the old Concordance of J. Fürst, Leipsic, 1848, there is now available S. Mandelkern, Veteris Testamenti concordantiæ Hebraice et Chaldaice, ib., 1896, which unfortunately is badly done, the errors being very numerous. The best grammar is W. Gesenius, Hebräische Grammatik, 27th ed. by Kautzach, 1902, Eng. transl. of 25th ed. adjusted to the 26th Germ. ed. by G. W. Collins, London, 1898, along with which should be used S. R. Driver, Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew, London, 1892. Related to Old Testament study is M. Jastrow, Dictionary of the Targumim, Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature, 2 vols., London and New York, 1903. For the Greek of the Old Testament there is sadly needed a new lexicon. The only one of moment is J. F. Schleusner, Lexici in interpretes Græcos Veteris Testamenti . . ., 2 vols., Leipsic, 1784-86. The Concordantiæ Græcæ versionis, by A. Tromm, 2 vols., Amsterdam, 1718, ought not to be discarded, even by those who possess E. Hatch and H. A. Redpath, A Concordance to the Septuagint, Oxford, 1892-1900, 2d ed., 2 vols. and supplement, 1906, the omissions in which make still necessary recourse to the older work.
For New Testament texts the student will naturally turn either to the Editio octava critica major of Tischendorf, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1869-72, with Prolegomena by C. R. Gregory, 3 vols., ib., 1884-94 (containing the most complete collection of the variant readings with description of the sources from which they are derived); to the edition by B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort, 2d ed., Cambridge, 1890; to R. F. Weymouth’s Resultant Greek Testament, London, 1892; to E. Nestle’s Novum Testamentum Græce, 3d ed., Stuttgart, 1901; or to O. von Gebhardt’s ed., combining the readings of Tischendorf, Tregelles, and Westcott and Hort, 16th ed., Leipsic, 1900. Of lexicons the best for general purposes is J. H. Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, New York, 1895; but notice must be taken of H. Cremer, Biblisch-theologisches Wörterbuch, 9th ed., Gotha, 1902, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., Edinburgh, 1886, with supplement (a work that aims to bring out especially the theological, philosophical, and psychological elements of the New Testament vocabulary, and is not a general lexicon). A choice is given in concordances between C. H. Bruder, Concordantiæ . . . Novi Testamenti, 5th ed., Göttingen, 1900, and W. F. Moulton and A. S. Geden, Concordance to the Greek Testament, Edinburgh and New York, 1897 (good for Westcott and Hort’s text). For the English Bible the two concordances of value now are R. Young, Analytical Concordance to the Bible, 7th ed., Edinburgh and New York, 1899; and J. Strong, Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible, New York, 1896. The best grammar of the New Testament is F. Blass, Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch, Göttingen, 1902, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., London, 1905, along with which should be used E. D. Burton, Syntax of Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek, Chicago, 1901 (the best work on the subject). Of H. J. Moulton’s Grammar of New Testament Greek, only vol. i., Prolegomena, is published, Edinburgh, 1906. General Semitic and Oriental philology is treated in separate volumes on the individual languages in the Porta linguarum orientalium, ed. J. H. Petermann, H. L. Strack, and others, Berlin, 1884 sqq.
As a directory upon the geography of Palestine the following works represent the choicest: the latest and the standard bibliography of Palestine is R. Röhricht, Chronologisches Verzeichniss der auf die Geographie des heiligen Landes bezüglichen Litteratur von 333 bis 1878, Berlin, 1890. Earlier but still useful is T. Tobler, Bibliographia geographica Palestinæ, Leipsic, 1867. On the topography there is nothing in English, perhaps nothing in any other tongue, superior in its way to G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land, 7th ed., London, 1897. Alongside this should be put E. Robinson’s Biblical Researches in Palestine, 3 vols., London and Boston, 1841, and in Germ. transl. at Halle the same year, and Later Biblical Researches, 1856 (a second ed., including both works in 3 vols., was published, Boston, 1868, but omits some things in the first edition which are sadly missed). In spite of its age this book is still useful. The Palestine Text Society of London has since 1887 been engaged in republishing the ancient itineraries and descriptions relating to Palestine, thus making available to the student material otherwise obtainable only by painful research. Special notice is deserved by the monographs published by the Palestine Exploration Fund of London, including the massive Memoirs. An epoch-making work was W. M. Thomson’s The Land and the Book, 3 vols., New York, 1886 (perhaps the most popular book ever written on the subject). An old classic, by no means superseded, is H. Reland, Palestina ex monumentis illustrata, Utrecht 1714. On the antiquities of Israel two works with nearly the same title, Hebräische Archäologie, were issued in the same place and year, Freiburg, 1894, the one by I. Benzinger, in 1 vol. (new ed., Tübingen, 1907), the other by W. Nowack, in 2 vols.
In the department of Church History the sources available to the student are growing exceedingly abundant. For a survey of early Christian literature the most detailed work is that of A. Harnack, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius, 2 vols. in 3 parts, Leipsic, 1893-1904 (a book of reference). A handbook of great value is G. Krüger, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur in den drei ersten Jahrhunderten, Freiburg, 1895, 2d ed., 1898, Eng. transl., New York,1897 (a model of compression and succinctness, including short lives of the writers and good lists of literature). C. T. Cruttwell, Literary History of Early Christianity, 2 vols., London, 1893, is also a work of merit. A massive work, doing for the Byzantine and later writers of the Greek Church what Harnack does for the early period, is K. Krumbacher, Byzantinische Litteraturgeschichte, 527-1453, Munich, 1897. As a guide to the use of medieval literature, and as a help to the sources and an indicator of all that is best in those sources in modern works, there is no book which can be compared with A. Potthast, Bibliotheca historica medii avi, Berlin, 1896, quoted in this work as Potthast, Wegweiser. No student of ecclesiastical history can afford to be without this most complete guide to the MSS. and the editions of the sources of knowledge of the lives of the saints, notables, and writers down to 1500 A. D.
As a source for original investigation in Patristics, as well as in medieval theological writings, there is nothing so handy (because of its comprehensiveness) as the collection made under the direction of the Abbé Migne, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Latina, 221 vols., Paris, 1844-64; Series Græca, 162 vols., ib., 1857-66 (a set of works rarely on the market, costing about $1,200, but possessed by the principal general and theological libraries in the country; the drawback is that the text is often not critical and is very badly printed). Subsidiary to the use of Migne the following works are often quoted: J. A. Fabricius, Bibliotheca Græca, 14 vols., Hamburg, 1705-28, new ed., by G. C. Harles, 12 vols., 1790-1811, incomplete (quoted as Fabricius-Harles), which is a bibliographical and biographical directory to early patristic writings, and contains textual matter of great importance; J. S. Assemani, Bibliotheca orientalis Clementino-Vaticana, 3 vols., Rome, 1719-28 (a collection of Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Hebrew, Samaritan, Armenian, Ethiopic, Egyptian, and other documents, with critical matter relating to them); E. Martène and N. Durand, Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum . . . collectio, 9 vols., Paris, 1724-33; A. Gallandi, Bibliotheca veterum patrum antiquarumque scriptorum ecclesiasticorum, 14 vols., Venice, 1765-81 (contains some works otherwise difficult of access. An index of contents to Gallandi is to be found in J. G. Dowling, Notitiæ scriptorum sanctorum patrum, pp. 192-209, Oxford, 1839). A work of great usefulness is R. Ceillier, Histoire générale des auteurs sacrés et ecclésiastiques, new ed., 14 vols. in 15 and Table générale des matières, 2 vols., Paris, 1858-69. Noteworthy are the excellent and handy Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna, 1867 sqq., appearing in parts and not in regular order (vol. xxxxvii. appeared 1906), and Patrum apostolicorum opera, ed. O. von Gebhardt, A. Harnack, and T. Zahn, 4 vols., Leipsic, 1876-78, the same, 5th ed. minor, 1905; and J. B. Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, 4 vols., London, 1877-89 (a work which will stand as one of the monuments of English scholarship, rich in original investigation, and with excursuses of the first rank in value and brilliancy). All these are supplemented in the case of new discoveries or by new treatment of works already in hand in the Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchrisdichen Litteratur, ed. O. von Gebhardt and A. Harnack, 1st series, 15 vols., 2d series in progress (14 vols. issued), Berlin, 1883 sqq., and by the English Texts and Studies, ed. J. A. Robinson, 7 vols., Cambridge, 1891-1906. For the English student there are available the Library of the Fathers, ed. E. B. Pusey, J. Keble, and J. H. Newman, 40 vols., Oxford, 1839 sqq.; and the Ante-Nicene, and Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, best and handiest in the Am. ed., published as follows: Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. A. Cleveland Coxe, 9 vols. and Index, Buffalo, 1887 (Index volume contains a valuable bibliography of patristics); Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 1st series, ed. P. Schaff, 14 vols., New York, 1887-92, 2d series, ed. P. Schaff and H. Wace, 14 vols., New York, 1890-1900. The first series includes 8 vols. of Augustine’s works (by far the best collection yet published in English) and 6 of Chrysostom’s; the 2d series includes the church histories of Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, and selected works of Gregory of Nyssa, Basil, Jerome, Gennadius, and others. Not to be left out of account is the Reliquiæ sacræ of M. J. Routh, 2d ed., 5 vols., Oxford, 1846-48, a collection of patristic and other fragments still of value and constantly employed and referred to.
Among collections of Sources the first place is easily held by the massive Monumenta Germaniæ historica, still in course of publication, of which over 60 volumes are already issued in folio and quarto, Hanover and Berlin. This series originated in the Gesellschaft für die altere deutsche Geschichtskunde in Frankfort, 1819. The work was put into the hands of Dr. G. H. Pertz, to whom the great comprehensiveness of the series and its consequent value is largely due. Dr. Pertz was editor and did much of the work till in 1875 it passed into the hands of Prof. G. Waitz, at whose death in 1886 Prof. W. Wattenbach took charge, and in 1888 Prof. E. Dümmler. Most of the German experts in the branches which the collected documents represent have collaborated. There are five sections, Scriptores, Leges, Diplomata, Epistolæ, Antiquitates, and many subsections. The documents in this royal series concern Christendom at large and not, as the title suggests, the German empire alone. There is a volume of Indices by O. Holder-Egger and K. Zeumer, Berlin, 1890, covering the volumes issued up to that time, and the table of contents is carried five years, farther along in the work of Potthast mentioned above.
Other collections of value to the historical student are: the Bibliotheca rerum Germanicarun, ed, P. Jaffé, 6 vols., Berlin, 1864-73; M. Bouquet, Rerum Gallicarum et Francicarum scriptores. Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, 23 vols., Paris, 1738-1876 (begun by the Benedictines of St. Maur and continued by the Academy. A new ed. was published under L. Delisle, 1869-94. The record is carried down to 1328 A. D.); L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italicarium scriptores, 25 vols. in 28, Milan, 1723-51 (covers the period 500-1500 A. D.; an elaborate new ed. under the direction of Giosuè Carducci and Vittorio Fiorini is being published by S. Lapi at Città di Castello, 1900 sqq.); Corpus scriptorum historiæ Byzantinæ, ed. Niebuhr, Bekker, and others, 49 vols., Bonn, 1828-78 (not so good in workmanship as is usual with German issues; a new ed. is in course of publication in 50 vols. at Bonn). In connection with this series of Byzantine historians should be noticed E. A. Sophocles, Greek-English Dictionary, Memorial edition, New York, 1887 (good for the Greek of the Roman and Byzantine periods). Recueil des historiens des croisades, 13 vols., Paris, 1841-85 (published under the care of the French Academy), is necessary for the study of the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia. The Corpus Reformatorum, begun at Halle, 1834, with the works of Melanchthon in 28 vols.; continued with Calvin’s in 59; and now presenting those of Zwingli, is the indispensable source for the student of those writers. Of some value to the student, more particularly to the archeologist, are: Corpus inscriptionum Latinarum, Berlin, 1863 sqq., and Corpus inscriptionum Græcarum, Berlin, 1825 sqq. A magnificent series is in progress in the Corpus inscriptionum Semiticarum, Paris, 1881 sqq.
For those who have not access to large libraries a number of selections from historical documents have been printed. For church history to the time of Constantine, cf. H. M. Gwatkin, Selection from Early Writers, London and New York, 1893; for the medieval and modern periods one of the best is E. Reich, Select Documents Illustrating Mediæval and Modern History, London, 1905, with which may be compared the smaller collection by S. Mathews, Select Mediæval Documents, 764.-1254 A.D., Boston, 1892 (both give the selections in the original languages). For students of the medieval period O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal have translated many important documents in A Source Book for Mediæval History, New York, 1905. Other works of this character are E. F. Henderson, Select Documents of the Middle Ages, London, 1892; D. C. Munro and G. C. Sellery, Medieval Civilization, New York, 1904 (consists of translations or condensations from European writers on important topics); J. H. Robinson, Readings in European History, 2 vols., Boston, 1904-06 (containing translations, condensations, and adaptations of selections, ranging from Seneca to J. A. Hobson, useful for illustration of European and American history, sacred and secular). The reader of German will receive efficient help in such publications as M. Schilling, Quellenbuch zur Geschichte der Neuzeit, 2d ed., Berlin, 1890; K. Noack, Kirchengeschichtliches Lesebuch, 2d ed., Berlin 1890; D. A. Ludwig, Quellenbuch zur Kirchengeschichte, Davos, 1891; P. Mehlhorn, Aus den Quellen der Kirchengeschichte, Berlin, 1894; C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums, 2d ed., Tübingen, 1901; H. Rinn and J. Jilngst, Kirchengeschichtliches Lesebuch, Tübingen, 1905.
To English Ecclesiastical Sources an excellent guide is C. Gross, Sources and Literature of English History to 1485, London, 1900. First among the collections of sources is to be mentioned A. W. Haddan and W. Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland, 3 vols. (vol. ii. in 2 parts), London, 1869-78 (covering the period 200-870 A. D. a storehouse of original documents, unfortunately left incomplete through the death of Haddan). Of high value are David Wilkins, Concilia Magnæ Britanniæ . . . 446-1717, 4 vols., London, 1737; Monumenta historica Britannica. Materials for the History of Britain . . . to the End of the Reign of Henry VII. Notes by H. Petrie and J. Sharpe, Introduction by T. D. Hardy, vol. i. folio, London, 1848 (no more published; issued under the direction of the Record Commission); J. A. Giles, Patres ecclesiæ Anglicani ad annum 1800, 36 vols., Oxford, 1838-43 (the work not well done, but still useful). For the reader of English alone a large number of select sources are given in H. Gee and W. J. Hardy, Documents Illustrative of English Church History, London, 1896 (covers the period 314-1700). Known by the searcher after original sources as of the highest value are the publications of a number of societies. Belonging in this class, though not under the care of any society, are Rerum Britannicarum medii avi scriptores, published under the Direction of the Master of the Rolls, London, 1858-91 (known as the Rolls Series. One of the most important of this series is No. 26, T. D. Hardy’s Descriptive Catalogue of Materials Relating to the History of Great Britain and Ireland . . . to the End of the Reign of Henry VII., 3 vols. in 4, 1862-71). The Henry Bradshaw Society of London began in 1891 to publish monastic and other documents; the Camden Society exists for the purpose of publishing documents illustrative of English history (London, 1838 to date), many of which are of ecclesiastical interest; the Surtees Society of Durham, founded 1834, has issued over 100 volumes, many of which make available sources of the first rank.
In the field of Biography a number of works should be known to students. A monumental work begun by J. S. Ersch and J. G. Gruber, continued by A. Leskien, is Allgemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste in alphabetischer Folge, Leipsic, 1818-89 and still receiving additions. Already 100 volumes and more have been issued, and it is to be continued from time to time. The biographical interest is so pronounced in this production that it takes a front rank in this class of works. The biographical interest is also predominant in another work to which very frequent reference is made, L. S. Le Nain de Tillemont, Mémoires pour servir a l’histoire ecclésiastique des six premiers siècles, 2d ed., 16 vols., Paris, 1701-12, parts of it in an English translation by T. Deacon, 2 vols., London, 1721,1733-35. J. P. Niceron, Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire des hommes illustrés dans la republique des lettres, 43 vols., Paris, 1729-45, is a work of reference often used; mention is due also to the Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, 45 vols., Paris, 1843 sqq., and Nouvelle biographie universelle of J. C. F. Hoefer, 46 vols., Paris, 1852-56, both serviceable and sometimes the only available works. Of national biographical works, for Germany there is the Allgemeine deutsche Biographic, 50 vols., Leipsic, 1875-1905 (still in progress; it is under the auspices of the Historical Commission of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences); for France, the Histoire littéraire de la France begun by the Benedictines of St. Maur, 12 vols., Paris, 1733-63, and continued by members of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-lettres to vol., xxxii., 1898 (a new edition is in progress, completed as far as vol. xvi.); for Protestant France may be consulted E. and E. Haag, La France protestante, 7 vols., Paris, 1846-59, 2d ed., enlarged by H. L. Bordier, vols. i.-vi., 1887-89; also belonging here is A. C. A. Agnew, Protestant Exiles from France, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1886 (printed for private circulation only). The one work of note for Holland is A. J. Van der As, Biographisch Woordenboek van der Nederlanden, Haarlem, 1852 sqq. For England there is the noble Dictionary of National Biography, edited by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee, 63 vols., and 3 supplement vols., with one of errata, London and New York, 1885-1904 (contains much of interest to Americans, especially on the founders and notables of colonial times; a cheaper ed. is promised); F. Boase, Modern English Biography of Persons who have died since . . . 1850, 3 vols., Truro, 1892-1901; and J. Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionary of English Catholics, 1534-1886, 5 vols., London and New York, n.d. (the lists of works by the subjects of the entries are an exceedingly valuable feature, being very complete). The Danes have also a biographical dictionary like those mentioned, Dansk biografisk lexikon, tillige omfallende Norge for tidsrummet, 1537-1814. Udgivet af C. F. Briska, Copenhagen, 1887 sqq.
There is still needed an adequate work on American Biography which shall correspond to the English Dictionary of National Biography cited above. There are available the National Cyclopedia of American Biography, 13 vols., New York, 1892-1906 (the alphabetical order is abandoned and no consistent substitute adopted; an elaborate index volume appeared in 1906); and Appleton’s Cyclopædia of American Biography by James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, rev. ed., 6 vols., ib., 1898-99 (the revision consists mainly of a supplement).
As a propædeutic to the study of General Church History an indispensable work is E. Schürer, Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 3d ed., 3 vols. and Index, Leipsic, 1898-1901, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., 5 vols., New York, 1891. Of works on general Church History there is a wide range of choice. A. Neander, History of the Christian Religion and Church, 11th Am. ed., 5 vols., Boston, 1872 (coming down to 1517 A. D.), and Index volume, 1881, is the most philosophical work on the subject yet published, superseded in parts by the discoveries made since it was written, but as a whole by no means obsolete; with this should go J. K. L. Gieseler, whose Ecclesiastical History in the German was in 5 vols., Darmstadt, 1824-25, Eng. transl. began by S. Davidson and others, 5 vols., Edinburgh, 1848-56, edited and translation carried further by H. B. Smith, translation completed by Miss Mary A. Robinson, 5 vols., New York, 1857-81 (especially valuable for its citation of original documents); and J. H. Kurtz, a translation of which from the 9th German edition by J. Macpherson appeared in London, 1888-89 (condensed in form and very usable; new ed. of the German by N. Bonwetsch and P. Tschackert, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1906). P. Schaff, History of the Christian. Church, 7 vols., New York, 1882-92, coming down through the Reformation, but omitting vol. v. on the scholastic period, is perhaps the most readable. A very compact work is W. Moeller, History of the Christian Church, 3 vols., London, 1892-1900 (comes down to 1648; the 2d ed. of the German original by H. von Schubert, Tübingen, 1902). J. F. Hurst, History of the Christian Church, 2 vols., New York, 1897-1900, is also compact; it is conservative in treatment of its subject. A. H. Newman, Manual of Church History, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1900-03, is, like Hurst, compact but less conservative in tone. The reader in Church History will find three works constantly referred to; viz., J. Bingham, Origines ecclesiasticæ, or the Antiquities of the Christian Church, 10 vols., London, 1708-22, often reprinted, unfortunately not seldom in abbreviated form (recognized by scholars as a work of “profound learning and unprejudiced inquiry” and remaining one of the standards in this department; best ed. in 8 vols. of his complete works in 10 vols., by R. Bingham, Jun., Oxford, 1855); A. J. Binterim, Die vorzüglichsten Denkwürdigkeiten der christ-katholischen Kirche, 2d ed., 7 vols., Mainz, 1837-41 (a treasury of important notes on “things worthy of remembrance”); and J. C. W. Augusti, Denkwürdigkeiten aus der christlichen Archäologie, 12 vols., Leipsic, 1817-31. Out of the number of works on the History of Dogma the one likely to be most useful, though by no means the most philosophical, is A. Harnack, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, 3d ed., 3 vols., Freiburg, 1894-97, Eng. transl., 7 vols., London, 1894-99, and Boston, 1895-1900. A work of the first rank frequently referred to for the history of Europe till the fall of Constantinople is E. Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, best edition by J. B. Bury, 7 vols., London, 1896-1900 (Gibbon is said to be the only student who worked over thoroughly the Byzantine Histories; formerly regarded as an opponent of Christianity, many of his positions are now taken by church historians).
For the Church History of Germany three works with the same title, Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands, are of supereminent worth and are generally used as works of reference: A. Hauck, vol. i., 4th ed., Leipsic, 1904, vol. ii., 2d ed., 1900, vol. iii., 3d ed., 1906, vol. iv., 2d ed., 1903 (contains rich bibliography); F. W. Rettberg, 2 vols., Göttingen, 1846-48 (especially good for origins); and J. Friedrich, 2 vols., Bamberg, 1867-69 (like Hauck, good in history of the dioceses). A handy help to the early sources of German Church History is W. Wattenbach, Deutschlands Gesehichtquellen . . . bis zum Mittel des. 13. Jahrhunderts, 5th ed., 2 vols., Berlin, 1885, 6th ed., 1893-94 (the changes are so great that both editions are frequently quoted side by side). A work of genius, learning, and attractiveness, but avowedly from a strong Roman Catholic standpoint, is Johannes Janssen’s History of the German People at the Close of the Middle Ages, German original ed. L. Pastor, 14th to 16th ed. completed in 8 vols.,1903, Eng. transl. by Miss Mary A. Mitchell and Miss Alice M. Christie, London, 10 vols. having appeared up to 1907.
For the Church History of France a bibliography is furnished by A. Molinier, Les Sources de l’histoire de France, 2 vols., Paris, 1901-02. Besides Bouquet, already mentioned, there are available for early sources: F. Guizot, Collection des mémoires relatifs a l’histoire de France, 31 vols., Paris, 1823-35; and Gallia christiana, 16 vols., ib., 1715-1865. An important work is J. N. Jager, Histoire de l’Eglise catholique en France, 20 vols., ib., 1862-78. In English there are: W. H. Jervis, The Gallican Church, 2 vols., London, 1872; H. M. Baird, Rise of the Huguenots, 2 vols., New York, 1883; idem, The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, 2 vols. ib., 1886-87; idem, The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 2 vols., ib., 1895.
A fair survey of the course of the Church in England is obtained by combining W. Bright, Chapters in Early English Church History, Oxford, 1906, with the series edited by W. R. W. Stephens and W. Hunt, 7 vols., London, 1899-1906, as follows: W. Hunt, The English Church 597-1066 (1899); W. R. W. Stephens, The English Church 1066-1272 (1901); W. W. Capes, The English Church in the 14th and 16th Centuries (1900); J. Gairdner, The English Church in the 16th Century (1903); W. H. Frere, The English Church in the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I. (1904); W. H. Hutton, The English Church from the Accession of Charles I. to the Death of Anne (1903); J. H. Overton and B. Felton, The Church of England 1714-1800 (1906).
For the Church History of Ireland and Scotland the following are valuable: J. Colgan, Acta sanctorum veteris et majoris Scotiæ seu Hiberniæ sanctorum insulæ . . . 2 vols., Louvain, 1645-47; H. M. Luckock, The Church in Scotland, London, 1893; J. Lanigan, An Ecclesiastical History of Ireland . . . to the 18th Century, 2d ed., 4 vols., Dublin, 1829 (a very important and essential work); J. O’Hanlon, Lives of the Irish Saints, 7 vols., Dublin, 1875-1877; J. Healy, Insula sanctorum et doctorum, or Ireland’s Ancient Schools and Scholars, Dublin, 1890; and T. Olden, The Church of Ireland, London, 1892. Consult particularly the list of literature under CELTIC CHURCH IN BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
American Church History as a whole is treated in the American Church History Series, 13 vols., New York, 1893-97, issued under the auspices of the American Society of Church History. The principal denominations receive extended treatment by some of their own specialists; for the minor denominations the provision made is only that given in vol. i. by H. K. Carroll, The Religious Forces of the United States, new ed., 1896. It is in respect to the minor sects that most difficulty is experienced in obtaining data. Another series of a more popular character The Story of the Churches, New York, 1904 sqq.
For the history of the Papacy an indispensable work is C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums, 2d ed., Tübingen, 1901 (a guide to the history, giving citations from original sources and a conspectus of the weightiest literature). The only work which covers nearly the entire history of the popes is that of A. Bower, History of the Popes to 1768, 7 vols., London, 1748-61, with Introduction and Continuation by S. H. Cox, 3 vols., Philadelphia, 1847 (the latter is the ed. cited in this work; the character of the History is poor, as was that of the author). H. H. Milman, History of Latin Christianity, 9 vols., new ed., London, 1883, is excellent and brings the history down to 1455; for its period (590-795, 858-891) a worthy work is R. C. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, vol. i., 2 parts, London, 1902; vol. iii., 1906; of great value is L. Pastor, Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters, 4 vols., 4th ed., Freiburg, 1901-07, Eng. transl., 6 vols., London, 1891-1902 (a most industrious and honest work, based on research in the original archives, covers the period 1305-1534; vols. i., iii., and v. of the English contain bibliographies); the period 1378-1527 is covered by M. Creighton’s History of the Papacy, 6 vols., London, 1897 (an invaluable work); L. von Ranke, Römische Päpste, 9th ed., 3 vols., Leipsic, 1889, Eng. transl., 3 vols., London, 1896, is indispensable for the period 1513-1847; the story is concluded by F. Nielsen, Geschichte des Papsttums im 19. Jahrhundert, 2d ed., Gotha, 1880, Eng. transl., 2 vols., New York, 1906. A work which parallels part of those mentioned is F. Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, G-16 Jahrhundert, 8 vols., Stuttgart, 1886-96, 5th ed., 1903 sqq., Eng. transl., from the 4th edition, 8 vols., London, 1901-02. The official Catholic record, covering the early and middle period, is the Liber pontificalis, best ed. of the whole work by L. Duchesne, containing text, introduction, and commentary, 2 vols., Paris, 1886-92, though the ed. by Mommsen, in MGH, Gestorum pontificum Romanorum vol. i, 1898, is even better so far as it goes. The bulls and briefs of the popes are best consulted in Bullarium, privilegiorum ac diplomatum Romanorum pontificum collectio C. Cocquelines, 14 vols., Rome, 1733-48, supplemented by Bullarium Benedicti XIV., 4 vols., ib., 1754-58, and Bullarii Romani continuatio (Clement XIII.-Gregory XVI.) by A. Barberi and A. Spetia, 19 vols., ib., 1835-57, the whole reedited by A. Tomassetti, 24 vols., Turin, 1857-72. Consult also L. Pastor, Acta inedita ad historiam Pontificum Romanorum, vol. i., 1376-1464, Freiburg, 1904.
A number of collections and discussions of the Decrees and Proceedings of the Councils has been made. Those most cited are P. Labbe and G. Cossart, Sacrosancta concilia, 17 vols. in 18, Paris, 1672; J. Harduin, Conciliorum collectio regia maxima, 12 vols., Paris, 1715; J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, 31 vols., Venice, 1759-1798 (of the older collections the one most cited); C. J. von Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, 7 vols., Freiburg, 1855-74 (coming down to 1433; a 2d ed. was begun by the author and carried on by Cardinal Hergenröther to 1536, 9 vols. in all, 1863-90; apparently vol. vii. of the 2d ed. never appeared); the Eng. transl. of Hefele by W. R. Clark includes only vols. i.-iii. of the German, down to 787 A. D., 5 vols., 1883-96. Of all these Hefele is the most accessible and now the oftenest cited.
On the subject of Monasticism all students are most deeply indebted to C. F. de T. Montalembert, Les Moines d’occident, 5 vols., Paris, 1860-67, authorized Eng. transl., 7 vols., London, 1861-79. For the history of religious orders the old standard, rich in erudition, is P. Helyot, Histoire des ordres monastiques, religieux et militaires et des, congrégations séculaires de l’un et de l’autre sexe, 8 vols., Paris, 1714-19; the best modern work is M. Heimbucher, Die Orden and Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche, 2 vols., Paderborn, 1896-97, 2d and enlarged ed., 3 vols., 1907, utilized from Vol. IV. on; the one work in English to be cited, which, however, leaves much to be desired, is C. W. Currier, History of Religious Orders, New York, 1896.
On the history of the separate Orders in the Roman Catholic Church the most important are the following: for the Jesuits, A. and A. de Backer, Bibliothèque des écrivains de la société de Jésus, 7 vols., Liege, 1853-61, new ed. by C. Sommervogel, Paris, 1891 sqq.; the Historiæ societatis Jesu, by a number of hands, 6 parts in 8 vols., Rome, 1615-1759 ; J. A. M. Cretineau-Joly, Histoire religieuse, politique et littéraire de la compagnie de Jésus, 6 vols., Paris, 1844-46; for the Benedictines, J. Mabillon, Acta ordinis sancti Benedictii, 9 vols., Paris, 1668-1702, and his Annales ordinis . . . Benedicti, 6 vols., Paris, 1703-39; for the Carmelites, J. B. de Lezana, Annales sacri prophetici et Eliani ordinis . . . de Monte Carmelo, 4 vols., Rome, 1651-66; for the Dominicans, Monumenta ordinis fratrum prædicatomm, in course of publication at Louvain since 1896 (the earlier works, now being superseded, are: A. Touron, Histoire des hommes illustres de Saint-Dominique, 6 vols., Paris, 1743-49, and T. M. Mamachi, Annales ordinis prædicatorum, 5 vols., Rome, 1754); for the Cistercians, A. Maurique, Annales cisterciennes, 4 vols., Lyons, 1642-59, and P. le Nain, Essai de l’ordre de Citeaux, 9 vols., Paris, 1696-1697; for the Franciscans, the Analecta Franciscana, 3 vols., Freiburg, 1885-97, and the Annales fratrum minorum, begun by L. Wadding, 8 vols., Lyons, 1625 sqq., continued by J. de Luca and various hands at Naples and Rome, 26 vols., and covering the period 1208-1611.
Somewhat akin to the foregoing is the subject of Hagiology, in which two works stand out as preeminent. The one is the Acta sanctorum of J. Bolland, the issue of which was begun in 1643, continued till the dispersion of the Jesuits compelled suspension of the work from 1794 (when vol. liii. was issued) till 1845. In all 63 vols. have been published, and a new ed. has appeared, Paris, 1863-94 (see ACTA MARTYRUM, ACTA SANCTORUM). This is supplemented by the Analecta Bollandiana, edited by a number of Jesuits, Paris and Brussels, 1882 sqq. (still in progress; it includes documents unused or passed by in the Acta, newly discovered material, variant accounts, notes on the old accounts, and description of manuscripts). The other important work is the Acta sanctorum ordinis S. Benedicti of J. Mabillon and T. Ruinart, 9 vols., Paris, 1668-1701, and Venice, 1733-40. Mention may be made of the Acta sanctorum Belgii of J. Ghesquiere and others, 6 vols., Brussels, 1783-94. J. Colgan’s work on Scottish and Irish saints is noted above (p. xviii.). The plan of arrangement in these compilations is that of the Roman calendar, the substance is the lives and legends concerning the saints, and the value of the material varies greatly. A very large amount of the material is derived from contemporary sources and is therefore useful when sifted by the critical processes.
In the comparatively new and certainly interesting region of the Comparison and History of Religions the series of first importance, making available to readers of English many of the Bibles and Commentaries of the great religions, is that of the Sacred Books of the East, under the editorship of F. Max Müller, 48 vols., Oxford, 1879-1904. A valuable set of historical expositions of the historical religions is found in the Darstellungen am dem Gebiete der nichtchristlichen Religionsgeschichte, 15 vols., Münster, 1890-1903. The Annales du Musée Guimet, Paris, 1880 sqq., combine the features of the Sacred Books of the East (translations of native sources) and of the Hibbert Lectures (discussions of particular religions). The Hibbert Lectures are a number of series, each series amounting to a treatise on some individual religion or phase of religion, delivered in Great Britain between 1878 and 1902 by specialists of eminence. A corresponding series, known as the American Lectures on the History of Religion, has been in progress since 1895 and is planned ahead as far as 1910. A valuable set is found in the Handbooks on the History of Religions edited by M. Jastrow, of which the following have appeared, Boston, 1895-1905: E. W. Hopkins, Religion of India, 1895; M. Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, 1895; P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye, Religion of the Ancient Teutons, 1896; A. Wiedemann, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, 1897; M. Jastrow, Study of Religion, 1901; and G. Steindorff, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, 1905. The best individual work on the whole subject is P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte, 3d ed., 2 vols., Tübingen, 1905 (in which the author had the cooperation of numerous scholars). Next to this is C. P. Tiele, Inleiding tot de godsdienstwetenschap, 2d ed., Amsterdam, 1900. Other important volumes are E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, 4th ed:, 2 vols., London, 1903; J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 2d ed., 3 vols., ib., 1900; F. B. Jevons, introduction to the History of Religion, ib., 1896 (all dealing with primitive religion).
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