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Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical notes. Volume II. The History of Creeds.
« Prev Fourteenth Session, held November 25, 1551. Next »
Sessio Decimaquarta, Fourteenth Session,
celebrata die XXV. Nov. 1551.

held November 25, 1551.

DE SANCTISSIMIS PŒNITENTIÆ ET EXTREMÆ UNCTIONIS SACRAMENTIS. ON THE MOST HOLY SACRAMENTS OF PENANCE AND EXTREME UNCTION.
Caput I. Chapter I.
De necessitate et institutione Sacramenti pœnitentiæ On the necessity, and on the institution of the Sacrament of Penance.
Si ea in regeneratis omnibus gratitudo erga Deum esset, ut justitiam in baptismo, ipsius beneficio et gratia susceptam constanter tuerentur, non fuisset opus, aliud ab ipso baptismo sacramentum ad peccatorum remissionem esse institutum. Quoniam autem Deus, dives in misericordia, cognovit figmentum nostrum, If such, in all the regenerate, were their gratitude towards God, as that they constantly preserved the justice received in baptism by his bounty and grace, there would not have been need for another sacrament, besides that of baptism itself, to be instituted for the remission of sins. But because God, rich in mercy, knows our frame,205205     Psa. cii. 14. he hath
illis etiam vitæ remedium contulit, qui se postea in peccati servitutem et dæmonis potestatem tradidissent, sacramentum videlicet pœnitentiæ, quo lapsis post baptismum beneficium mortis Christi applicatur. Fuit quidem pœnitentia universis hominibus, qui se mortali aliquo peccato inquinassent, quovis tempore ad gratiam et justitiam assequendam necessaria, illis etiam, qui baptismi sacramento ablui petivissent, ut, perversitate abjecta et emendata, tantam Dei offensionem cum peccati odio et pio animi dolore detestarentur; unde propheta ait; Convertimini, et agite pœnitentiam ab omnibus iniquitatibus vestris; et non erit vobis in ruinam iniquitas. Dominus etiam dixit: Nisi pœnitentiam egeritis, omnes similiter peribitis. Et princeps apostolorum Petrus peccatoribus baptismo initiandis pœnitentiam commendans dicebat: Pœnitentiam agite, et baptizetur unusquisque vestrum. Porro nec ante adventum Christi pœnitentia erat sacramentum, nec est post adventum illius cuiquam ante baptismum. Dominus autem sacramentum pœnitentiæ tunc præcipue bestowed a remedy of life even on those who may, after baptism, have delivered themselves up to the servitude of sin and the power of the devil,—the sacrament to wit of Penance, by which the benefit of the death of Christ is applied to those who have fallen after baptism. Penitence was indeed at all times necessary, in order to attain to grace and justice, for all men who had defiled themselves by any mortal sin, even for those who begged to be washed by the sacrament of Baptism; that so, their perverseness renounced and amended, they might, with a hatred of sin and a godly sorrow of mind, detest so great an offense of God. Wherefore the prophet says: Be converted and do penance for all your iniquities, and iniquity shall not be your ruin.206206     Ezek. xviii. 30. The Lord also said: Except you do penance, you shall also likewise perish;207207     Luke xiii. 5. and Peter, the prince of the apostles, recommending penitence to sinners who were about to be initiated by baptism, said: Do penance, and be baptized every one of you.208208     Acts ii. 38. Nevertheless, neither before the coming of Christ was penitence a sacrament, nor is it such, since his coming, to any previously to baptism. But the Lord then principally instituted the sacrament
instituit, cum a mortuis excitatus insufflavit in discipulos suos, dicens: Accipite Spiritum Sanctum; quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis, et quorum retinueritis, retenta sunt. Quo tam insigni facto et verbis tam perspicuis potestatem remittendi et retinendi peccata, ad reconciliandos fideles post baptismum lapsos, apostolis et eorum legitimis successoribus fuisse communicatam, universorum patrum consensus semper intellexit, et Novatianos, remittendi potestatem olim pertinaciter negantes, magna ratione Ecclesia Catholica, tamquam hæreticos, explosit atque condemnavit. Quare verissimum hunc illorum verborum Domini sensum sancta hæc synodus probans et recipiens, damnat eorum commentitias interpretationes, qui verba illa ad potestatem prædicandi verbum Dei et Christi evangelium annuntiandi, contra hujusmodi sacramenti institutionem, falso detorquent. of penance, when, being raised from the dead, he breathed upon his disciples, saying: Receive ye the Holy Ghost: whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained.209209     John xx. 23. By which action so signal, and words so clear, the consent of all the Fathers has ever understood that the power of forgiving and retaining sins was communicated to the apostles and their lawful successors, for the reconciling of the faithful who have fallen after baptism. And the Catholic Church with great reason repudiated and condemned as heretics the Novatians, who of old obstinately denied that power of forgiving. Wherefore, this holy Synod, approving of and receiving as most true this meaning of those words of our Lord, condemns the fanciful interpretations of those who, in opposition to the institution of this sacrament, falsely wrest those words to the power of preaching the Word of God, and of announcing the Gospel of Christ.
Caput II. Chapter II.
De differentia Sacramenti pœnitentiæ et Baptismi. On the difference between the Sacrament of Penance and that of Baptism.
Ceterum hoc sacramentum multis rationibus a baptismo differre For the rest, this sacrament is clearly seen to be different from
dignoscitur. Nam præterquam quod materia et forma, quibus sacramenti essentia perficitur, longissime dissidet: constat certe, baptismi ministrum judicem esse non oportere, cum Ecclesia in neminem judicium exerceat, qui non prius in ipsam per baptismi januam fuerit ingressus. Quid enim mihi, inquit apostolus, de iis, qui foris sunt, judicare? Secus est de domesticis fidei, quos Christus dominus lavacro baptismi sui corporis membra semel effecit; nam hos, si se postea crimine aliquo contaminaverint, non jam repetito baptismo ablui, cum id in Ecclesia Catholica nulla ratione liceat, sed ante hoc tribunal tamquam reos sisti voluit, ut per sacerdotum sententiam non semel, sed quoties ab admissis peccatis ad ipsum pœnitentes confugerint, possent liberari. Alius præterea est baptismi, et alius pœnitentiæ fructus; per baptismum enim Christum induentes, nova prorsus in illo efficimur creatura, plenam et integram peccatorum omnium remissionem consequentes: ad quam tamen novitatem, et integritatem per sacramentum pœnitentiæ, sine magnis nostris fletibus baptism in many respects: for besides that it is very widely different indeed in matter and form, which constitute the essence of a sacrament, it is beyond doubt certain that the minister of baptism need not be a judge, seeing that the Church exercises judgment on no one who has not entered therein through the gate of baptism. For, what have I, saith the apostle, to do to judge them that are without?210210     1 Cor. v. 12. It is otherwise with those who are of the household of the faith, whom Christ our Lord has once, by the laver of baptism, made the members of his own body; for such, if they should afterwards have defiled themselves, by any crime, he would no longer have them cleansed by a repetition of baptism—that being nowise lawful in the Catholic Church—but be placed as criminals before this tribunal; that, by the sentence of the priests, they might be freed, not once, but as often as, being penitent, they should, from their sins committed, flee thereunto. Furthermore, one is the fruit of baptism, and another that of penance. For, by baptism putting on Christ,211211     Gal. iii. 23. we are made therein entirely a new creature, obtaining a full and entire remission of all sins; unto which newness and
et laboribus, divina id exigente justitia, pervenire nequaquam possumus, ut merito pœnitentia laboriosus quidam baptismus a sanctis patribus dictus fuerit. Est autem hoc sacramentum pœnitentiæ lapsis post baptismum ad salutem necessarium, ut nondum regeneratis ipse baptismus. entireness, however, we are no ways able to arrive by the sacrament of Penance, without many tears and great labors on our parts, the divine justice demanding this; so that penance has justly been called by holy Fathers a laborious kind of baptism. And this sacrament of Penance is, for those who have fallen after baptism, necessary unto salvation; as baptism itself is for those who have not as yet been regenerated.
Caput III. Chapter III.
De partibus et fructibus hujus sacramenti. On the parts and on the fruit of this sacrament.
Docet præterea sancta synodus, sacramenti pœnitentiæ formam, in qua præcipue ipsius vis sita est, in illis ministri verbis positam esse: Ego te absolvo, etc. Quibus quidem de Ecclesiæ sanctæ more preces quædam laudabiliter adjunguntur; ad ipsius tamen formæ essentiam nequaquam spectant, neque ad ipsius sacramenti administrationem sunt necessariæ. Sunt autem quasi materia hujus sacramenti ipsius pœnitentis actus, nempe contritio, confessio, et satisfactio. Qui quatenus in pœnitente ad integritatem sacramenti, ad plenamque et perfectam peccatorum remissionem ex Dei institutione requiruntur, The holy Synod doth furthermore teach, that the form of the sacrament of Penance, wherein its force principally consists, is placed in those words of the minister: I absolve thee, etc.; to which words indeed certain prayers are, according to the custom of holy Church, laudably joined, which nevertheless by no means regard the essence of that form, neither are they necessary for the administration of the sacrament itself. But the acts of the penitent himself, to wit, contrition, confession, and satisfaction, are as it were the matter of this sacrament. Which acts, inasmuch as they are, by God's institution, required in the penitent for the integrity of the sacrament, and for the full and perfect
hac ratione pœnitentiæ partes dicuntur. Sane vero res et effectus hujus sacramenti, quantum ad ejus vim et efficaciam pertinet, reconciliatio est cum Deo, quam interdum in viris piis, et cum devotione hoc sacramentum percipientibus, conscientiæ pax ac serenitas cum vehementi spiritus consolatione consequi solet. Hæc de partibus et effectu hujus sacramenti sancta synodus tradens, simul eorum sententias damnat, qui pœnitentiæ partes incussos conscientiæ terrores et fidem esse contendunt. remission of sins, are for this reason called the parts of penance. But the thing signified indeed, and the effect of this sacrament, as far as regards its force and efficacy, is reconciliation with God, which sometimes, in persons who are pious and who receive this sacrament with devotion, is wont to be followed by peace and serenity of conscience, with exceeding consolation of spirit. The holy Synod, whilst delivering these things touching the parts and the effect of this sacrament, condemns at the same time the opinions of those who contend that the terrors which agitate the conscience, and faith, are the parts of penance.
Caput IV. Chapter IV.
De Contritione. On Contrition.
Contritio, quæ primum locum inter dictos pœnitentis actus habet, animi dolor ac detestatio est de peccato commisso, cum proposito non peccandi de cetero. Fuit autem quovis tempore ad impetrandam veniam peccatorum hic contritionis motus necessarius, et in homine post baptismum lapso ita demum præparat ad remissionem peccatorum, si cum fiducia divinæ misericordiæ et voto præstandi reliqua conjunctus sit, quæ ad rite suscipiendum Contrition, which holds the first place amongst the aforesaid acts of the penitent, is a sorrow of mind, and a detestation for sin committed, with the purpose of not sinning for the future. This movement of contrition was at all times necessary for obtaining the pardon of sins; and, in one who has fallen after baptism, it then at length prepares for the remission of sins, when it is united with confidence in the divine mercy, and with the desire of performing the other things which are required for rightly receiving this sacrament.
hoc sacramentum requiruntur. Declarat igitur sancta synodus, hanc contritionem non solum cessationem a peccato et vitæ novas propositum et inchoationem, sed veteris etiam odium continere, juxta illud: Projicite a vobis omnes iniquitates vestras, in quibus prævaricati estis, et facite vobis cor novum et spiritum novum. Et certe, qui illos sanctorum clamores consideraverit: Tibi soli peccavi, et malum coram te feci; Laboravi in gemitu meo, lavabo per singulas noctes lectum meum. Recogitabo tibi omnes annos meos in amaritudine animæ meæ; et alios hujus generis, facile intelliget, eos ex vehementi quodam anteactæ vitæ odio et ingenti peccatorum detestatione manasse. Docet præterea, etsi contritionem hanc aliquando caritate perfectam esse contingat, hominemque Deo reconciliare, priusquam hoc sacramentum actu suscipiatur, ipsam nihilominus reconciliationem ipsi contritioni sine sacramenti voto, quod in illa includitur, non esse adscribendam. Illam vero contritionem imperfectam, quæ attritio dicitur, Wherefore the holy Synod declares, that this contrition contains not only a cessation from sin, and the purpose and the beginning of a new life, but also a hatred of the old, agreeably to that saying: Cast away from you all your iniquities, wherein you have transgressed, and make to yourselves a new heart and a new spirit.212212     Ezek. xviii. 31. And assuredly he who has considered those cries of the saints: To thee only have I sinned, and have done evil before thee;213213     Psa. l. 6. I have labored in my groaning, every night I will wash my bed;214214     Psa. vi. 7. I will recount to thee all my years, in the bitterness of my soul;215215     Isa. xxxviii. 15. and others of this kind, will easily understand that they flowed from a certain vehement hatred of their past life, and from an exceeding detestation of sins. The Synod teaches moreover, that, although it sometimes happens that this contrition is perfect through charity, and reconciles man with God before this sacrament be actually received, the said reconciliation, nevertheless, is not to be ascribed to that contrition, independently of the desire of the sacrament which is included therein. And as to that imperfect contrition, which is called attrition, because
quoniam vel ex turpitudinis peccati consideratione vel ex gehennæ et pœnarum metu communiter concipitur, si voluntatem peccandi excludat cum spe veniæ, declarat non solum non facere hominem hypocritam et magis peccatorem, verum etiam donum Dei esse et Spiritus Sancti impulsum, non adhuc quidem inhabitantis, sed tantum moventis, quo pœnitens adjutus viam sibi ad justitiam parat. Et quamvis sine sacramento pœnitentiæ per se ad justificationem perducere peccatorem nequeat, tamen eum ad Dei gratiam in sacramento pœnitentiæ impetrandam disponit: hoc enim timore utiliter concussi Ninivitæ, ad Ionæ prædicationem, plenam terroribus pœnitentiam egerunt et misericordiam a Domino impetrarunt. Quamobrem falso quidam calumniantur Catholicos scriptores, quasi tradiderint, sacramentum pœnitentiæ absque bono motu suscipientium gratiam conferre, quod numquam Ecclesia Dei docuit, neque sensit; sed et falso docent, contritionem esse extortam et coactam, non liberam et voluntariam. that it is commonly conceived either from the consideration of the turpitude of sin, or from the fear of hell and of punishment, it declares that if, with the hope of pardon, it exclude the wish to sin, it not only does not make a man a hypocrite, and a greater sinner, but that it is even a gift of God, and an impulse of the Holy Ghost,—who does not indeed as yet dwell in the penitent, but only moves him,—whereby the penitent being assisted prepares a way for himself unto justice. And although this [attrition] can not of itself, without the sacrament of Penance, conduct the sinner to justification, yet does it dispose him to obtain the grace of God in the sacrament of Penance. For, smitten profitably with this fear, the Ninivites, at the preaching of Jonas, did fearful penance, and obtained mercy from the Lord. Wherefore falsely do some calumniate Catholic writers, as if they had maintained that the sacrament of Penance confers grace without any good motion on the part of those who receive it: a thing which the Church of God never taught, or thought; and falsely also do they assert that contrition is extorted and forced, not free and voluntary.
Caput V. Chapter V.
De Confessione. On Confession.
Ex institutione sacramenti pœnitentiæ jam explicata universa Ecclesia semper intellexit, institutam etiam esse a Domino integram peccatorum confessionem, et omnibus post baptismum lapsis jure divino necessariam existere, quia Dominus noster Iesus Christus, e terris ascensurus ad cœlos, sacerdotes sui ipsius vicarios reliquit, tamquam præsides et judices, ad quos omnia mortalia crimina deferantur, in quæ Christi fideles ceciderint, quo, pro potestate clavium, remissionis aut retentionis peccatorum sententiam pronuncient. Constat enim, sacerdotes judicium hoc incognita causa exercere non potuisse, nec æquitatem quidem illos in pænis injungendis servare potuisse, si in genere tumtaxat, et non potius in specie, ac sigillatim sua ipsi peccata declarassent. Ex his colligitur, oportere a pœnitentibus omnia peccata mortalia, quorum post diligentem sui discussionem conscientiam habent, in confessione recenseri, etiam si occultissima illa sint et tantum adversus duo ultima decalogi præcepta commissa, quæ nonnunquam animum From the institution of the sacrament of Penance, as already explained, the universal Church has always understood that the entire confession of sins was also instituted by the Lord, and is of divine right necessary for all who have fallen after baptism; because that our Lord Jesus Christ, when about to ascend from earth to heaven, left priests his own vicars, as presidents and judges, unto whom all the mortal crimes, into which the faithful of Christ may have fallen, should be carried, in order that, in accordance with the power of the keys, they may pronounce the sentence of forgiveness or retention of sins. For it is manifest that priests could not have exercised this judgment without knowledge of the cause; neither indeed could they have observed equity in enjoining punishments, if the said faithful should have declared their sins in general only, and not rather specifically, and one by one. Whence it is gathered that all the mortal sins, of which, after a diligent examination of themselves, they are conscious, must needs be by penitents enumerated in confession, even though those sins be most hidden, and committed only against the two last precepts of the
gravius sauciant, et periculosiora sunt iis, quæ in manifesto admittuntur. Nam venialia, quibus a gratia Dei non excludimur et in quæ frequentius labimur, quamquam recte et utiliter citraque omnem præsumptionem in confessione dicantur, quod piorum hominum usus demonstrat, taceri tamen citra culpam multisque aliis remediis expiari possunt. Verum, cum universa mortalia peccata, etiam cogitationis, homines iræ filios et Dei inimicos reddant, necessum est, omnium etiam veniam cum aperta et verecunda confessione, a Deo quærere. Itaque dum omnia, quæ memoriæ occurrunt, peccata Christi fideles confiteri student, procul dubio omnia divinæ misericordiæ ignoscenda exponunt. Qui vero secus faciunt et scienter aliqua retinent, nihil divinæ bonitati per sacerdotem remittendum proponunt. Si enim erubescat ægrotus vulnus medico detegere, quod ignorat, medicina non curat. Colligitur præterea, etiam eas circumstantias in confessione explicandas esse, quæ speciem peccati mutant, quod sine illis peccata ipsa neque a pœnitentibus decalogue,—sins which sometimes wound the soul more grievously, and are more dangerous, than those which are committed outwardly. For venial sins, whereby we are not excluded from the grace of God, and into which we fall more frequently, although they be rightly and profitably, and without any presumption, declared in confession, as the custom of pious persons demonstrates, yet may they be omitted without guilt, and be expiated by many other remedies. But, whereas all mortal sins, even those of thought, render men children of wrath,216216     Ephes. ii. 3. and enemies of God, it is necessary to seek also for the pardon of them all from God, with an open and modest confession. Wherefore, while the faithful of Christ are careful to confess all the sins which occur to their memory, they without doubt lay them all bare before the mercy of God to be pardoned: whereas they who act otherwise, and knowingly keep back certain sins, such set nothing before the divine bounty to be forgiven through the priest; for if the sick be ashamed to show his wound to the physician, his medical art cures not that which it knows not of. We gather, furthermore, that those circumstances which change the species
integre exponantur, nec judicibus innotescant; et fieri nequeat, ut de gravitate criminum recte censere possint et pœnam, quam oportet, pro illis pœnitentibus imponere. Unde alienum a ratione est docere, circumstantias has ab hominibus otiosis excogitatas fuisse, aut unam tantum circumstantiam confitendam esse, nempe peccasse in fratrem. Sed et impium est, confessionem, quæ hac ratione fieri præcipitur, impossibilem dicere, aut carnificinam, illam conscientiarum appellare; constat enim, nihil aliud in Ecclesia a pœnitentibus exigi, quam ut, postquam quisque diligentius se excusserit et conscientiæ suæ sinus omnes et latebras exploraverit, ea peccata confiteatur, quibus se Dominum et Deum suum mortaliter offendissi meminerit; reliqua autem peccata, quæ diligenter cogitanti non occurrunt, in universum eadem confessione inclusa esse intelliguntur; pro quibus fideliter cum propheta dicimus: Ab occultis meis munda me, Domine. Ipsa vero hujusmodi confessionis difficultas ac peccata detegendi verecundia, gravis quidem videri of the sin are also to be explained in confession, because that, without them, the sins themselves are neither entirely set forth by the penitents, nor are they known clearly to the judges; and it can not be that they can estimate rightly the grievousness of the crimes, and impose on the penitents the punishment which ought to be inflicted on account of them. Whence it is unreasonable to teach that these circumstances have been invented by idle men; or that one circumstance only is to be confessed, to wit, that one has sinned against a brother. But it is also impious to assert, that confession, enjoined to be made in this manner, is impossible, or to call it a slaughter-house of consciences; for it is certain, that in the Church nothing else is required of penitents, but that, after each has examined himself diligently, and searched all the folds and recesses of his conscience, he confess those sins by which he shall remember that he has mortally offended his Lord and God: whilst the other sins, which do not occur to him after diligent thought, are understood to be included as a whole in that same confession; for which sins we confidently say with the prophet: From my secret sins cleanse me, O Lord.217217     Psa. xviii. 13. Now, the
posset, nisi tot tantisque commodis et consolationibus levaretur, quæ omnibus digne ad hoc sacramentum accedentibus per absolutionem certissime conferuntur. Ceterum, quoad modum confitendi secreto apud solum sacerdotem, etsi Christus non vetuerit, quin aliquis in vindictam suorum scelerum et sui humiliationem, cum ob aliorum exemplum, tum ob Ecclesiæ offensæ ædificationem delicta sua publice confiteri possit: non est tamen hoc divino præcepto mandatum, nec satis consulte humana aliqua lege præciperetur, ut delicta, præsertim secreta, publica essent confessione aperienda; unde cum a sanctissimis et antiquissimis patribus magno unanimique consensu secreta confessio sacramentalis, qua ab initio Ecclesia sancta usa est et modo etiam utitur, fuerit semper commendata, manifeste refellitur inanis eorum calumnia, qui eam a divino mandato alienam et inventum humanum esse, atque a patribus in concilio lateranensi congregatis initium habuisse, docere non verentur; neque enim per lateranense concilium Ecclesia statuit, ut Christi fideles confiterentur, very difficulty of a confession like this, and the shame of making known one's sins, might indeed seem a grievous thing, were it not alleviated by the so many and so great advantages and consolations, which are most assuredly bestowed by absolution upon all who worthily approach to this sacrament. For the rest, as to the manner of confessing secretly to a priest alone, although Christ has not forbidden that a person may,—in punishment of his sins, and for his own humiliation, as well for an example to others as for the edification of the Church that has been scandalized,—confess his sins publicly, nevertheless this is not commanded by a divine precept; neither would it be very prudent to enjoin by any human law, that sins, especially such as are secret, should be made known by a public confession. Wherefore, whereas the secret sacramental confession, which was in use from the beginning in holy Church, and is still also in use, has always been commended by the most holy and the most ancient Fathers with a great and unanimous consent, the vain calumny of those is manifestly refuted, who are not ashamed to teach that confession is alien from the divine command, and is a human invention, and that it took its
quod jure divino necessarium et institutum esse intellexerat, sed ut præceptum confessionis, saltem semel in anno, ab omnibus et singulis, cum ad annos discretionis pervenissent, impleretur; unde jam in universa Ecclesia cum ingenti animarum fidelium fructu observatur mos ille salutaris confitendi sacro illo et maxime acceptabili tempore quadragesimæ: quem morem hæc sancta synodus maxime probat et amplectitur, tamquam pium et merito retinendum. rise from the Fathers assembled in the Council of Lateran: for the Church did not, through the Council of Lateran, ordain that the faithful of Christ should confess,—a thing which it knew to be necessary, and to be instituted of divine right,—but that the precept of confession should be complied with, at least once a year, by all and each, when they have attained to years of discretion. Whence, throughout the whole Church, the salutary custom is, to the great benefit of the souls of the faithful, now observed, of confessing at that most sacred and most acceptable time of Lent,—a custom which this holy Synod most highly approves of and embraces, as pious and worthy of being retained.
Caput VI. Chapter VI.
De ministro hujus sacramenti et Absolutione. On the ministry of this sacrament, and on Absolution.
Circa ministrum autem hujus sacramenti declarat sancta synodus, falsas esse et a veritate evangelii penitus alienas doctrinas omnes, quæ ad alios quosvis homines, præter episcopos et sacerdotes clavium ministerium perniciose extendunt, putantes verba illa Domini: Quæcumque alligaveritis super terram, erunt alligata et in cœlo, et quæcumque solveritis But, as regards the minister of this sacrament, the holy Synod declares all those doctrines to be false, and utterly alien from the truth of the Gospel, which perniciously extend the ministry of the keys to any others soever besides bishops and priests; imagining, contrary to the institution of this sacrament, that those words of our Lord, Whatsoever you shall bind, upon earth, shall be bound also in heaven, and
super terram, erunt soluta et in cœlo; et: Quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis, et quorum retinueritis, retenta sunt: ad omnes Christi fideles, indifferenter et promiscue, contra institutionem hujus sacramenti ita fuisse dicta, ut quivis potestatem habeat remittendi peccata, publica quidem per correptionem, si correptus acquieverit, secreta vero per spontaneam confessionem cuicumque factam. Docet quoque, etiam sacerdotes, qui peccato mortali tenentur, per virtutem Spiritus Sancti in ordinatione collatam, tamquam Christi ministros, functionem remittendi peccata exercere, eosque prave sentire, qui in malis sacerdotibus hanc potestatem non esse contendunt. Quamvis autem absolutio sacerdotis alieni beneficii sit dispensatio, tamen non est solum nudum ministerium vel annuntiandi evangelium, vel declarandi remissa esse peccata; sed ad instar actus judicialis, quo ab ipso, velut a judice, sententia pronuntiatur. Atque ideo non debet pænitens adeo sibi de sua ipsius fide blandiri, ut, etiam si nulla illi adsit contritio, aut sacerdote animus serio whatsoever you shall loose upon earth shall be loosed also in heaven,218218     Matt. xviii. 18. and, Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained,219219     John xx. 23. were in such wise addressed to all the faithful of Christ indifferently and indiscriminately, as that every one has the power of forgiving sins,—public sins to wit by rebuke, provided he that is rebuked shall acquiesce, and secret sins by a voluntary confession made to any individual whatsoever. It also teaches, that even priests, who are in mortal sin, exercise, through the virtue of the Holy Ghost which was bestowed in ordination, the office of forgiving sins, as the ministers of Christ; and that their sentiment is erroneous who contend that this power exists not in bad priests. But although the absolution of the priest is the dispensation of another's bounty, yet is it not a bare ministry only, whether of announcing the Gospel, or of declaring that sins are forgiven, but is after the manner of a judicial act, whereby sentence is pronounced by the priest as by a judge; and therefore the penitent ought not, so to confide in his own personal faith as to think that,—even though there be no contrition on his part, or no intention on the
agendi et vere absolvendi desit, putet tamen se propter suam solam fidem vere et coram Deo esse absolutum. Nec enim fides sine pœnitentia remissionem ullam peccatorum præstaret; nec is esset nisi salutis suæ negligentissimus, qui sacerdotem joco se absolventem cognosceret, et non alium serio agentem sedulo requireret. part of the priest of acting seriously and absolving truly,—he is nevertheless truly and in God's sight absolved, on account of his faith alone. For neither would faith without penance bestow any remission of sins, nor would he be otherwise than most careless of his own salvation, who, knowing that a priest but absolved him in jest, should not carefully seek for another who would act in earnest.
Caput VII. Chapter VII.
De casuum reservatione. On the reservation of cases.
Quoniam igitur natura et ratio judicii illud exposcit, ut sententia in subditos dumtaxat feratur, persuasum semper in Ecclesia Dei fuit, et verissimum esse synodus hæc confirmat, nullius momenti absolutionem eam esse debere, quam sacerdos in eum profert, in quem ordinariam aut subdelegatam non habet jurisdictionem. Magnopere vero ad Christiani populi disciplinam pertinere sanctissimis patribus nostris visum est, ut atrociora quædam et graviora crimina non a quibusvis, sed a summis dumtaxat sacerdotibus absolverentur; unde merito Pontifices maximi pro suprema potestate sibi in Ecclesia universa tradita causas aliquas criminum Wherefore, since the nature and order of a judgment require this, that sentence be passed only on those subject [to that judicature], it has ever been firmly held in the Church of God, and this Synod ratifies it as a thing most true, that the absolution, which a priest pronounces upon one over whom he has not either an ordinary or a delegated jurisdiction, ought to be of no weight whatever. And it hath seemed to our most holy Fathers to be of great importance to the discipline of the Christian people, that certain more atrocious and more heinous crimes should be absolved, not by all priests, but only by the highest priests; whence the Sovereign Pontiffs, in virtue of the supreme power delivered to them in
graviores suo potuerunt peculiari judicio reservare. Neque dubitandum esset, quando omnia, quæ a Deo sunt, ordinata sunt, quin hoc idem episcopis omnibus in sua cuique diæcesi, in ædificationem tamen, non in destructionem liceat, pro illis in subditos tradita supra reliquos inferiores sacerdotes auctoritate, præsertim quoad illa, quibus excommunicationis censura annexa est. Hanc autem delictorum reservationem consonum est divinæ auctoritati non tantum in externa politia, sed etiam coram Deo vim habere. Verumtamen pie admodum, ne hac ipsa occasione aliquis pereat, in eadem Ecclesia Dei custoditum semper fuit, ut nulla sit reservatio in articulo mortis; atque ideo omnes sacerdotes quoslibet pœnitentes a quibusvis peccatis et censuris absolvere possunt; extra quem articulum sacerdotes cum nihil possint in casibus reservatis, id unum pœnitentibus persuadere nitantur, ut ad superiores et legitimos judices pro beneficio absolutionis accedant. the universal Church, were deservedly able to reserve, for their special judgment, certain more grievous cases of crimes. Neither is it to be doubted,—seeing that all things, that are from God, are well ordered,—but that this same may be lawfully done by all bishops, each in his own diocese, unto edification, however, not unto destruction, in virtue of the authority, above [that of] other inferior priests, delivered to them over their subjects, especially as regards those crimes to which the censure of excommunication is annexed. But it is consonant to the divine authority, that this reservation of cases have effect, not merely in external polity, but also in God's sight. Nevertheless, for fear lest any may perish on this account, it has always been very piously observed in the said Church of God, that there be no reservation at the point of death, and that therefore all priests may absolve all penitents whatsoever from every kind of sins and censures whatever: and as, save at that point of death, priests have no power in reserved cases, let this alone be their endeavor, to persuade penitents to repair to superior and lawful judges for the benefit of absolution.
Caput VIII. Chapter VIII.
De Satisfactionis necessitate et fructu. On the necessity and on the fruit of Satisfaction.
Demum quoad satisfactionem, quæ ex omnibus pœnitentiæ, partibus, quemadmodum a patribus nostris Christiano populo fuit perpetuo tempore commendata, ita una maxime nostra ætate summo pietatis prætextu impugnatur ab iis, qui speciem pietatis habent, virtutem autem ejus abnegarunt: sancta synodus declarat, falsum omnino esse et a verbo Dei alienum, culpam a Domino nunquam remitti, quin universa etiam pœna condonetur. Perspicua enim et illustria in sacris litteris exempla reperiuntur, quibus, præter divinam traditionem, hic error quam manifestissime revincitur. Sane et divinæ justitiæ ratio exigere videtur, ut aliter ab eo in gratiam recipiantur, qui ante baptismum per ignorantiam deliquerint; aliter vero qui semel a peccati et dæmonis servitute liberati, et accepto Spiritus Sancti dono, scientes templum Dei violare et Spiritum Sanctum contristare non formidaverint. Et divinam clementiam decet, ne ita nobis absque ulla Finally, as regards satisfaction,—which as it is, of all the parts of penance, that which has been at all times recommended to the Christian people by our Fathers, so is it the one especially which in our age is, under the loftiest pretext of piety, impugned by those who have an appearance of godliness, but have denied the power thereof,220220     2 Tim. iii. 5. —the holy Synod declares, that it is wholly false, and alien from the Word of God, that the guilt is never forgiven by the Lord, without the whole punishment also being therewith pardoned. For clear and illustrious examples are found in the sacred writings, whereby, besides by divine tradition, this error is refuted in the plainest manner possible. And truly the nature of divine justice seems to demand, that they, who through ignorance have sinned before baptism, be received into grace in one manner; and in another those who, after having been freed from the servitude of sin and of the devil, and after having received the gift of the Holy Ghost, have not feared, knowingly to violate the temple of God,221221     1 Cor. iii. 17. and to grieve the Holy Spirit.222222     Ephes. iv. 30. And it
satisfactione peccata dimittantur, ut, occasione accepta, peccata leviora putantes, velut injurii et contumeliosi Spiritui Sancto in graviora labamur, thesaurizantes nobis iram in die iræ. Procul dubio enim magnopere a peccato revocant et quasi fræno quodam cærcent hæ satisfactoriæ pœnæ, cautioresque et vigilantiores in futurum pænitentes efficiunt; medentur quoque peccatorum reliquiis et vitiosos habitus male vivendo comparatos contrariis virtutum actionibus tollunt. Neque vero securior ulla via in Ecclesia Dei umquam existimata fuit ad amovendam imminentem a Domino pœnam, quam ut hæc pœnitentiæ opera homines cum vero animi dolore frequentent. Accedit ad hæc, quod, dum satisfaciendo patimur pro peccatis, Christo Jesu, qui pro peccatis nostris satisfecit, ex quo omnis nostra sufficientia est, conformes efficimur, certissimam quoque inde arrham habentes, quod, si compatimur et conglorificabimur. Neque vero ita nostra est satisfactio hæc, quam pro peccatis nostris exsolvimus, ut beseems the divine clemency, that sins be not in such wise pardoned us without any satisfaction, as that, taking occasion therefrom, thinking sins less grievous, we, offering as it were an insult and an outrage to the Holy Ghost,223223     Heb. x. 29. should fall into more grievous sins, treasuring up wrath against the day of wrath.224224     Rom. ii. 4. For, doubtless, these satisfactory punishments greatly recall from sin, and check as it were with a bridle, and make penitents more cautious and watchful for the future; they are also remedies for the remains of sin, and, by acts of the opposite virtues, they remove the habits acquired by evil living. Neither indeed was there ever in the Church of God any way accounted surer to turn aside the impending chastisement of the Lord, than that men should, with true sorrow of mind, practice these works of penitence. Add to these things, that, whilst we thus, by making satisfaction, suffer for our sins, we are made conformable to Jesus Christ, who satisfied for our sins, from whom all our sufficiency is;225225     2 Cor. iii. 5. having also thereby a most sure pledge, that if we suffer with him, we shall also be glorified with him.226226     Rom. viii. 17. But neither is this satisfaction, which we
non sit per Christum Iesum, nam qui ex nobis, tamquam ex nobis, nihil possumus, eo cooperante, qui nos confortat, omnia possumus. Ita non habet homo, unde glorietur; sed omnis gloriatio nostra in Christo est; in quo vivimus, in quo meremur, in quo satisfacimus, facientes fructus dignos pœnitentiæ, qui ex illo vim habent, ab illo offeruntur Patri, et per illum acceptantur a Patre. Debent ergo sacerdotes Domini, quantum Spiritus et prudentia suggesserit, pro qualitate criminum et pœnitentium facultate, salutares et convenientes satisfactiones injungere; ne, si forte peccatis conniveant et indulgentius cum pœnitentibus agant, levissima quædam opera pro gravissimis delictis injungendo, alienorum peccatorum participes efficiantur. Habeant autem præ oculis, ut satisfactio, quam imponunt, non sit tantum ad novæ vitæ custodiam et infirmitatis medicamentum, sed etiam ad præteritorum peccatorum vindictam et castigationem: nam claves sacerdotum, non ad solvendum dumtaxat, sed et ad ligandum concessas etiam antiqui patres discharge for our sins, so our own, as not to be through Jesus Christ. For us who can do nothing of ourselves, as of ourselves, can do all things, he co-operating, who strengthens us. Thus, man has not wherein to glory, but all our glorying is in Christ: in whom we live; in whom we merit; in whom we satisfy; bringing forth fruits worthy of penance,227227     Matt. iii. 18. which from him have their efficacy; by him are offered to the Father; and through him are accepted by the Father. Therefore the priests of the Lord ought, as far as the Spirit and prudence shall suggest, to enjoin salutary and suitable satisfactions, according to the quality of the crimes and the ability of the penitent; lest, if haply they connive at sins, and deal too indulgently with penitents, by enjoining certain very light works for very grievous crimes, they be made partakers of other men's sins. But let them have in view, that the satisfaction, which they impose, be not only for the preservation of a new life and a medicine of infirmity, but also for the avenging and punishing of past sins. For the ancient Fathers likewise both believe and teach, that the keys of the priests were given, not to loose only, but also to bind.228228     Matt. xvi. 19.; John xx. 23. But not therefore
et credunt et docent. Nec propterea existimarunt, sacramentum pœnitentiæ esse forum iræ vel pœnarum, sicut nemo umquam Catholicus sensit, ex hujusmodi nostris satisfactionibus vim meriti et satisfactionis Domini nostri Iesu Christi vel obscurari vel aliqua ex parte imminui; quod dum novatores intelligere nolunt, ita optimam pœnitentiam novam vitam esse docent, ut omnem satisfactionis vim et usum tollant. did they imagine that the sacrament of Penance is a tribunal of wrath or of punishments; even as no Catholic ever thought, that, by this kind of satisfaction on our parts, the efficacy of the merit and of the satisfaction of our Lord Jesus Christ is either obscured or in any way lessened: which when the innovators seek to understand, they in such wise maintain a new life to be the best penance, as to take away the entire efficacy and use of satisfaction.
Caput IX. Chapter IX.
De operibus Satisfactionis. On works of Satisfaction.
Docet præterea, tantam esse divinæ munificentiæ largitatem, ut non solum pænis sponte a nobis pro vindicando peccato susceptis, aut sacerdotis arbitrio pro mensura delicti impositis, sed etiam, quod maximum amoris argumentum est, temporalibus flagellis a Deo inflictis et a nobis patienter toleratis apud Deum Patrem per Christum Iesum satisfacere valeamus. The Synod teaches furthermore, that so great is the liberality of the divine munificence, that we are able through Jesus Christ to make satisfaction to God the Father, not only by punishments voluntarily undertaken of ourselves for the punishment of sin, or by those imposed at the discretion of the priest according to the measure of our delinquency, but also, which is a very great proof of love, by the temporal scourges inflicted of God, and borne patiently by us.
DOCTRINA DE SACRAMENTO EXTREMÆ UNCTIONIS. ON THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION.
Visum est autem sanctæ synodo, præcedenti doctrinæ de pœnitentia adjungere ea, quæ sequuntur de sacramento It hath also seemed good to the holy Synod, to subjoin to the preceding doctrine on Penance, the following
extremæ unctionis, quod non modo pœnitentiæ, sed et totius Christianæ vitæ, quæ perpetua pœnitentia esse debet, consummativum existimatum est a Patribus. Primum itaque circa illius institutionem declarat et docet, quod clementissimus Redemptor noster, qui servis suis quovis tempore voluit de salutaribus remediis adversus omnia omnium hostium tela esse prospectum, quemadmodum auxilia maxima in sacramentis aliis præparavit, quibus Christiani conservare se integros, dum viverent, ab omni graviori spiritus incommodo possint: ita extremæ unctionis sacramento finem vitæ, tamquam firmissimo quodam præsidio, munivit. Nam etsi adversarius noster occasiones per omnem vitam quærat et captet, ut devorare animas nostras quoquo modo possit: nullum tamen tempus est, quo vehementius ille omnes suæ versutiæ nervos intendat ad perdendos nos penitus, et a fiducia etiam, si possit, divinæ misericordiæ deturbandos, quam cum impendere nobis exitum vitæ prospicit. on the sacrament of Extreme Unction, which by the Fathers was regarded as being the completion, not only of penance, but also of the whole Christian life, which ought to be a perpetual penance. First, therefore, as regards its institution, it declares and teaches, that our most gracious Redeemer,—who would have his servants at all times provided with salutary remedies against all the weapons of all their enemies,—as, in the other sacraments, he prepared the greatest aids, whereby during life, Christians may preserve themselves whole from every more grievous spiritual evil, so did he guard the close of life, by the sacrament of Extreme Unction, as with a most firm defense. For though our adversary seeks and seizes opportunities, all our life long, to be able in any way to devour229229     1 Pet. v. 8. our souls; yet is there no time wherein he strains more vehemently all the powers of his craft to ruin us utterly, and, if he can possibly, to make us fall even from trust in the mercy of God, than when he perceives the end of our life to be at hand.
Caput I. Chapter I.
De institutione sacramenti Extremæ Unctionis. On the institution of the sacrament of Extreme Unction.
Instituta est autem sacra unctio infirmorum tamquam vere et proprie sacramentum novi testamenti, a Christo Domino nos tro apud Marcum quidem insinuatum, per Iacobum autem apostolum ac Domini fratrem, fidelibus commendatum ac promulgatum. Infirmatur, inquit, quis in vobis? inducat presbyteros Ecclesiæ, et orent super eum, ungentes eum oleo in nomine Domini; et oratio fidei salvabit infirmum; et alleviabit eum Dominus; et si in peccatis sit, dimittentur ei. Quibus verbis, ut ex apostolica traditione per manus accepta Ecclesia didicit, docet materiam, formam, proprium ministrum, et effectum hujus salutaris sacramenti. Intellexit enim Ecclesia, materiam esse oleum ab episcopo benedictum; nam unctio aptissime Spiritus Sancti gratiam, qua invisibiliter anima ægrotantis inungitur, repræsentat; formam deinde esse illa verba: Per istam unctionem, etc. Now, this sacred unction of the sick was instituted by Christ our Lord, as truly and properly a sacrament of the new law, insinuated indeed in Mark, but recommended and promulgated to the faithful by James the Apostle, and brother of the Lord. Is any man, he saith, sick among you? Let him, bring in the priests of the Church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: and the prayer of faith shall save the sick man; and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he be in sins, they shall be forgiven him.230230     James v. 14, 15. In which words, as the Church has learned from apostolic tradition, received from hand to hand, he teaches the matter, the form, the proper minister, and the effect of this salutary sacrament. For the Church has understood the matter thereof to be oil blessed by a bishop. For the unction very aptly represents the grace of the Holy Ghost, with which the soul of the sick person is invisibly anointed; and furthermore that those words, "By this unction," etc., are the form.
Caput II. Chapter II.
De effectu hujus Sacramenti. On the effect of this Sacrament.
Res porro et effectus hujus sacramenti illis verbis explicatur: Et oratio fidei salvabit infirmum; et alleviabit eum Dominus; et si in peccatis sit, dimittentur ei. Res etenim hæc gratia est Spiritus Sancti, cujus unctio delicta, si quæ sint adhuc expianda, ac peccati reliquias abstergit; et ægroti animam alleviat et confirmat, magnam in eo divinæ misericordiæ fiduciam excitando; qua infirmus sublevatus et morbi incommoda ac labores levius fert, et tentationibus dæmonis, calcaneo insidiantis, facilius resistit, et sanitatem corporis interdum, ubi saluti animæ expedierit, consequitur. Moreover, the thing signified, and the effect of this sacrament, are explained in those words: And the prayer of faith shall save the sick man, and the Lord shall raise him up, and if he be in sins they shall be forgiven him. For the thing here signified is the grace of the Holy Ghost; whose anointing cleanses away sins, if there be any still to be expiated, as also the remains of sins; and raises up and strengthens the soul of the sick person, by exciting in him a great confidence in the divine mercy; whereby the sick being supported, bears more easily the inconveniences and pains of his sickness; and more readily resists the temptations of the devil who lies in wait for his heel;231231     Gen. iii. 15. and at times obtains bodily health, when expedient for the welfare of the soul.
Caput III. Chapter III.
De ministro hujus Sacramenti, et tempore, quo dari debeat. On the minister of this Sacrament, and on the time when it ought to be administered.
Jam vero, quod attinet ad præscriptionem eorum, qui et suscipere et ministrare hoc sacramentum debent, haud obscure fuit illud etiam in verbis prædictis traditum. Nam et ostenditur illic, proprios hujus sacramenti And now as to prescribing who ought to receive, and who to administer this sacrament, this also was not obscurely delivered in the words above cited. For it is there also shown, that the proper ministers of this sacrament are the Presbyters
ministros esse Ecclesia Presbyteros; quo nomine eo loco, non ætate seniores, aut primores in populo intelligendi veniunt, sed aut episcopi, aut sacerdotes ab ipsis rite ordinati per impositionem manuum presbyterii. Declaratur etiam, esse hanc unctionem infirmis adhibendam, illis vero præsertim, qui tam periculose decumbunt, ut in exitu vitæ constituti videantur; unde et sacramentum exeuntium nuncupatur. Quod si infirmi post susceptam hanc unctionem convaluerint, iterum hujus sacramenti subsidio juvari poterunt, cum in aliud simile vitæ discrimen inciderint. Quare nulla ratione audiendi sunt, qui contra tam apertam et dilucidam apostoli Iacobi sententiam docent, hanc unctionem vel figmentum esse humanum, vel ritum a patribus acceptum, nec mandatum Dei, nec promissionem gratiæ habentem; et qui illam jam cessasse asserunt, quasi ad gratiam curationum dumtaxat in primitiva Ecclesia referenda esset; et qui dicunt, ritum et usum, quem sancta Romana Ecclesia in hujus sacramenti administratione observat, Iacobi apostoli sententiæ repugnare, of the Church; by which name are to be understood, in that place, not the elders by age, or the foremost in dignity amongst the people, but either bishops, or priests by bishops rightly ordained by the imposition of the hands of the priesthood.232232     1 Tim. iv. 14. It is also declared, that this unction is to be applied to the sick, but to those especially who lie in such danger as to seem to be about to depart this life: whence also it is called the sacrament of the departing. And if the sick should, after having received this unction, recover, they may again be aided by the succor of this sacrament, when they fall into another like danger of death. Wherefore, they are on no account to be hearkened to, who, against so manifest and clear a sentence of the Apostle James, teach, either that this unction is a human figment or is a rite received from the Fathers, which neither has a command from God, nor a promise of grace: nor those who assert that it has already ceased, as though it were only to be referred to the grace of healing in the primitive Church; nor those who say that the rite and usage which the holy Roman Church observes in the administration of this sacrament is repugnant to the sentiment of the Apostle
atque ideo in alium commutandum esse; et denique, qui hanc extremam unctionem a fidelibus sine peccato contemni posse affirmant. Hæc enim omnia manifestissime pugnant cum perspicuis tanti apostoli verbis. Nec profecto Ecelesia Romana, aliarum omnium mater et magistra, aliud in hac administranda unctione, quantum ad ea, quæ hujus sacramenti substantiam perficiunt, observat, quam quod beatus Iacobus præscripsit. Neque vero tanti sacramenti contemptus absque ingenti scelere et ipsius Spiritus Sancti injuria esse posset. James, and that it is therefore to be changed into some other; nor finally those who affirm that this Extreme Unction may without sin be contemned by the faithful; for all these things are most manifestly at variance with the perspicuous words of so great an apostle. Neither assuredly does the Roman Church, the mother and mistress of all other churches, observe aught in administering this unction,—as regards those things which constitute the substance of this sacrament,—but what blessed James has prescribed. Nor indeed can there be contempt of so great a sacrament without a heinous sin, and an injury to the Holy Ghost himself.
Hæc sunt, quæ de pœnitentiæ et extremæ unctionis sacramentis sancta hæc œcumenica synodus profitetur et docet atque omnibus Christi fidelibus credenda et tenenda proponit. Sequentes autem canones inviolabiliter servandos esse tradit, et asserentes contrarium perpetuo damnat et anathematizat. These are the things which this holy œcumenical Synod professes and teaches and proposes to all the faithful of Christ, to be believed and held, touching the sacraments of Penance and Extreme Unction. And it delivers the following canons to be inviolably preserved; and condemns and anathematizes those who assert what is contrary thereto.
DE SANCTISSIMO PŒNITENTIÆ SACRAMENTO. ON THE MOST HOLY SACRAMENT OF PENANCE.
Canon I.Si quis dixerit, in Catholica Ecclesia pœnitentiam non esse vere et proprie sacramentum pro fidelibus, quoties Canon I.—If any one saith, that in the Catholic Church Penance is not truly and properly a sacrament, instituted by Christ our Lord
post baptismum in peccata labuntur, ipsi Deo reconciliandis a Christo Domino nostro institutum: anathema sit. for reconciling the faithful unto God, as often as they fall into sin after baptism: let him be anathema.
Canon II.Si quis sacramenta confundens, ipsum baptismum pœnitentiæ sacramentum esse dixerit, quasi hæc duo sacramenta distincta non sint, atque ideo pœnitentiam non recte secundam post naufragium tabulam appellari: anathema sit. Canon II.—If any one, confounding the sacraments, saith that baptism is itself the sacrament of Penance, as though these two sacraments were not distinct, and that therefore Penance is not rightly called a second plank after shipwreck: let him be anathema.
Canon III.Si quis dixerit, verba illa Domini Salvatoris: Accipite Spiritum Sanctum; quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis; et quorum retinueritis, retenta sunt: non esse intelligenda de potestate remittendi et retinendi peccata in sacramento pœnitentiæ, sicut Ecclesia Catholica ab initio semper intellexit; detorserit autem, contra institutionem hujus sacramenti, ad auctoritatem prædicandi evangelium: anathema sit. Canon III.—If any one saith, that those words of the Lord the Saviour, Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained,233233     John xx. 22, 23. are not to be understood of the power of forgiving and of retaining sins in the sacrament of Penance, as the Catholic Church has always from the beginning understood them; but wrests them, contrary to the institution of this sacrament, to the power of preaching the gospel: let him be anathema.
Canon IV.Si quis negaveret, ad integram et perfectam peccatorum remissionem requiri tres actus in pœnitente, quasi materiam sacramenti pœnitentiæ, videlicet, contritionem, confessionem, et satisfactionem, quæ tres pœnitentiæ Canon IV.—If any one denieth, that, for the entire and perfect remission of sins, there are required three acts in the penitent, which are as it were the matter of the sacrament of Penance, to wit, contrition, confession, and satisfaction, which are called the three parts of
partes dicuntur; aut dixerit, duas tantum esse pœnitentiæ partes, terrores scilicet incussos conscientiæ, agnito peccato, et fidem conceptam ex evangelio vel absolutione, qua credit quis sibi per Christum remissa peccata: anathema sit. penance; or saith that there are two parts only of penance, to wit, the terrors with which the conscience is smitten upon being convinced of sin, and the faith, generated by the gospel, or by the absolution, whereby one believes that his sins are forgiven him through Christ: let him be anathema.
Canon V.Si quis dixerit eam contritionem, quæ paratur per discussionem, collectionem et detestationem peccatorum, qua quis recogitat annos suos in amaritudine animæ suæ, ponderando peccatorum suorum gravitatem, multitudinem, fœditatem, amissionem æternæ beatitudinis, et æternæ damnationis incursum, cum proposito melioris vitæ, non esse verum et utilem dolorem, nec præparare ad gratiam, sed facere hominem hypocritam et magis peccatorem; demum, illum esse dolorem coactum et non liberum ac voluntarium: anathema sit. Canon V.—If any one saith, that the contrition which is acquired by means of the examination, collection, and detestation of sins,—whereby one thinks over his years in the bitterness of his soul,234234     Isa. xxxviii. 15. by pondering on the grievousness, the multitude, the filthiness of his sins, the loss of eternal blessedness, and the eternal damnation which he has incurred, having therewith the purpose of a better life,—is not a true and profitable sorrow, does not prepare for grace, but makes a man a hypocrite and a greater sinner; in fine, that this [contrition] is a forced and not free and voluntary sorrow: let him be anathema.
Canon VI.Si quis negaverit, confessionem sacramentalem vel institutam, vel ad salutem necessariam esse jure divino; aut dixerit, modum secrete confitendi soli sacerdoti, quem Ecclesia Cathotica ab initio semper observavit et observat, alienum Canon VI.—If any one denieth, either that sacramental confession was instituted, or is necessary to salvation, of divine right; or saith, that the manner of confessing secretly to a priest alone, which the Church hath ever observed from the beginning, and doth observe, is alien
esse ab institutione et mandato Christi, et inventum esse humanum: anathema sit. from the institution and command of Christ, and is a human invention: let him be anathema.
Canon VII.Si quis dixerit, in sacramento pœnitentiæ ad remissionem peccatorum necessarium non esse jure divino confiteri omnia et singula peccata mortalia, quorum memoria cum debita et diligenti præmeditatione habeatur, etiam occulta, et quæ sunt contra duo ultima Decalogi præcepta, et circumstantias, quæ peccati speciem mutant, sed eam confessionem tantum esse utilem ad erudiendum et consolandum pœnitentem, et olim observatam fuisse tantum ad satisfactionem canonicam imponendam; aut dixerit eos, qui omnia peccata confiteri student, nihil relinquere velle divinæ misericordiæ ignoscendum; aut demum, non licere confiteri peccata venialia: anathema sit. Canon VII.—If any one saith, that, in the sacrament of Penance, it is not necessary, of divine right, for the remission of sins, to confess all and singular the mortal sins which after due and diligent previous meditation are remembered, even those [mortal sins] which are secret, and those which are opposed to the two last commandments of the Decalogue, as also the circumstances which change the species of a sin; but [saith] that such confession is only useful to instruct and console the penitent, and that it was of old only observed in order to impose a canonical satisfaction; or saith that they, who strive to confess all their sins, wish to leave nothing to the divine mercy to pardon; or, finally, that it is not lawful to confess venial sins: let him be anathema.
Canon VIII.Si quis dixerit, confessionem omnium peccatorum, qualem Ecclesia servat, esse impossibilem et traditionem humanam a piis abolendam; aut ad eam non teneri omnes et singulos utriusque Christi fideles, juxta magni Concilii Lateranensis constitutionem, semel in anno et Canon VIII.—If any one saith, that the confession of all sins, such as it is observed in the Church, is impossible, and is a human tradition to be abolished by the godly; or that all and each of the faithful of Christ, of either sex, are not obliged thereunto once a year, conformably to the constitution of the great Council of Lateran, and that,
ob id suadendum esse Christi fidelibus, ut non confiteantur tempore quadragesimæ: anathema sit. for this cause, the faithful of Christ are to be persuaded not to confess during Lent: let him be anathema.
Canon IX.Si quis dixerit, absolutionem sacramentalem sacerdotis, non esse actum judicialem, sed nudum ministerium pronunciandi et declarandi, remissa esse peccata confitenti, modo tantum credat, se esse absolutum; aut sacerdos non serio, sed joco absolvat; aut dixerit, non requiri confessionem pœnitentis, ut sacerdos ipsum absolvere possit: anathema sit. Canon IX.—If any one saith, that the sacramental absolution of the priest is not a judicial act, but a bare ministry of pronouncing and declaring sins to be forgiven to him who confesses; provided only he believe himself to be absolved, or [even though] the priest absolve not in earnest, but in joke; or saith, that the confession of the penitent is not required, in order that the priest may be able to absolve him: let him be anathema.
Canon X.Si quis dixerit, sacerdotes, qui in peccato mortali sunt, potestatem ligandi et solvendi non habere; aut non solos sacerdotes esse ministros absolutionis, sed omnibus et singulis Christi fidelibus esse dictum: Quæcumque ligaveritis super terram, erunt ligata et in cœlo; et quæcumque solveritis super terram, erunt soluta et in cælo; et: Quorum remiseritis peccata, remittuntur eis; et quorum retinueritis, retenta sunt: quorum verborum virtute quilibet absolvere possit peccata, publica quidem per correptionem dumtaxat, si correptus acquieverit, Canon X.—If any one saith, that priests, who are in mortal sin, have not the power of binding and loosing; or, that not priests alone are the ministers of absolution, but that, to all and each of the faithful of Christ is it said: Whatsoever you shall bind upon earth shall be bound also in heaven; and whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, shall be loosed also in heaven;235235     Matt. xviii. 15. and, whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained;236236     John xx. 23. by virtue of which words every one is able to absolve from sins, to wit, from public sins by reproof only, provided he who is
secreta vero per spontaneam confessionem: anathema sit. reproved yield thereto, and from secret sins by a voluntary confession: let him be anathema.
Canon XI.Si quis dixerit, episcopos non habere jus reservandi sibi casus, nisi quoad externam politiam, atque ideo casuum reservationem non prohibere, quo minus sacerdos a reservatis vere absolvat: anathema sit. Canon XI.—If any one saith, that bishops have not the right of reserving cases to themselves, except as regards external polity, and that therefore the reservation of cases hinders not, but that a priest may truly absolve from reserved cases: let him be anathema.
Canon XII.Si quis dixerit, totam pœnam simul cum culpa remitti semper a Deo, satisfactionemque pœnitentium non esse aliam quam fidem, qua apprehendunt Christum pro eis satisfecisse: anathema sit. Canon XII.—If any one saith, that God always remits the whole punishment together with the guilt, and that the satisfaction of penitents is no other than the faith whereby they apprehend that Christ has satisfied for them: let him be anathema.
Canon XIII.Si quis dixerit, pro peccatis, quoad pœnam temporalem, minime Deo pro Christi merita satisfieri pœnis ab eo inflictis et patienter toleratis, vel a sacerdote injunctis, sed neque sponte susceptis, ut jejuniis, orationibus, eleemosynis, vel aliis etiam pietatis operibus, atque ideo optimam pœnitentiam esse tantum novam vitam: anathema sit. Canon XIII.—If any one saith, that satisfaction for sins, as to their temporal punishment, is nowise made to God, through the merits of Jesus Christ, by the punishments inflicted by him, and patiently borne, or by those enjoined by the priest, nor even by those voluntarily undertaken, as by fastings, prayers, alms-deeds, or by other works also of piety; and that, therefore, the best penance is merely a new life: let him be anathema.
Canon XIV.Si quis dixerit, satisfactiones, quibus pœnitentes per Christum Iesum peccata redimunt, non esse cultus Canon XIV.—If any one saith, that the satisfactions, by which penitents redeem their sins through Jesus Christ, are not a worship of
Dei, sed traditiones hominum, doctrinam de gratia, et verum Dei cultum atque ipsum beneficium mortis Christi obscurantes: anathema sit. God, but traditions of men, which obscure the doctrine of grace, and the true worship of God, and the benefit itself of the death of Christ: let him be anathema.
Canon XV.Si quis dixerit, claves Ecclesiæ esse datas tantum ad solvendum, non etiam ad ligandum, et propterea sacerdotes, dum imponunt pœnas confitentibus, agere contra finem clavium et contra institutionem Christi; et fictionem esse, quod, virtute clavium sublata pœna æterna, pœna temporalis plerumque exsolvenda remaneat: anathema sit. Canon XV.—If any one saith, that the keys are given to the Church, only to loose, not also to bind; and that, therefore, priests act contrary to the purpose of the keys, and contrary to the institution of Christ, when they impose punishments on those who confess; and that it is a fiction, that, after the eternal punishment has, by virtue of the keys, been removed, there remains for the most part a temporal punishment to be discharged: let him be anathema.
DE SACRAMENTO EXTREMÆ UNCTIONIS. ON THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION.
Canon I.Si quis dixerit, extremam unctionem non esse vere et proprie sacramentum a Christo domino nostro institutum et a beato Iacobo apostolo promulgatum; sed ritum tantum acceptum a patribus aut figmentum humanum: anathema sit. Canon I.—If any one saith, that Extreme Unction is not truly and properly a sacrament, instituted by Christ our Lord, and promulgated by the blessed Apostle James; but is only a rite received from the Fathers, or a human figment: let him be anathema.
Canon II.Si quis dixerit, sacram infirmorum unctionem non conferre gratiam, nec remittere peccata, nec alleviare infirmos, sed jam cessasse, quasi olim tantum fuerit gratia curationum: anathema sit. Canon II.—If any one saith, that the sacred unction of the sick does not confer grace, nor remit sin, nor comfort the sick; but that it has already ceased, as though it were of old only the grace of working cures: let him be anathema.
Canon III.Si quis dixerit, extremæ unctionis ritum et usum, quem observat sancta Romana Ecclesia, repugnare sententiæ beati Iacobi apostoli, ideoque eum mutandum, posseque a Christianis absque peccato contemni: anathema sit. Canon III.—If any one saith, that the right and usage of Extreme Unction, which the holy Roman Church observes, is repugnant to the sentiment of the blessed Apostle James, and that is therefore to be changed, and may, without sin, be contemned by Christians: let him be anathema.
Canon IV.Si quis dixerit, Presbyteros Ecclesiæ, quos beatus Iacobus adducendos esse ad infirmum, inungendum hortatur, non esse sacerdotes ab episcopo ordinatos, sed ætate seniores in quavis communitate, ob idque proprium extremæ unctionis ministrum non esse solum sacerdotem: anathema sit. Canon IV.—If any one saith, that the Presbyters of the Church, whom blessed James exhorts to be brought to anoint the sick, are not the priests who have been ordained by a bishop, but the elders in each community, and that for this cause a priest alone is not the proper minister of Extreme Unction: let him be anathema.

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