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10:1 His twelve disciples [tous dōdeka mathētas autou]. First mention of the group of “learners” by Matthew and assumed as already in existence (note the article) as they were (Mr 3:14). They were chosen before the Sermon on the Mount was delivered, but Matthew did not mention it in connection with that sermon.
Gave them authority [edōken autois exousian]. “Power” (Moffatt, Goodspeed). One may be surprised that here only the healing work is mentioned, though Luke (Lu 9:2) has it “to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick.” And Matthew says (Mt 10:7), “And as ye go, preach.” Hence it is not fair to say that Matthew knows only the charge to heal the sick, important as that is. The physical distress was great, but the spiritual even greater. Power is more likely the idea of [exousia] here. This healing ministry attracted attention and did a vast deal of good. Today we have hospitals and skilled physicians and nurses, but we should not deny the power of God to bless all these agencies and to cure disease as he wills. Jesus is still the master of soul and body. But intelligent faith does not justify us in abstaining from the help of the physician who must not be confounded with the quack and the charlatan.
10:2 The names of the twelve apostles [tōn dōdeka apostolōn ta onomata]. This is the official name (missionaries) used here by Matthew for the first time. The names are given here, but Matthew does not say that they were chosen at this time. Mark (Mr 3:13-19) and Luke (Lu 6:12-16) state that Jesus “chose” them, “appointed” them after a night of prayer in the mountain and came down with them and then delivered the Sermon (Lu 6:17). Simon heads the list [prōtos] in all four lists including Ac 1:13f. He came to be first and foremost at the great Pentecost (Ac 2 and Ac 3). The apostles disputed a number of times as to which was greatest. Judas Iscariot comes last each time save that he is absent in Acts, being already dead. Matthew calls him the betrayer [ho paradidous]. Iscariot is usually explained as “man of Kerioth” down near Edom (Jos 15:25). Philip comes fifth and James the son of Alphaeus the ninth. Bartholomew is the name for Nathanael. Thaddaeus is Judas the brother of James. Simon Zelotes is also called Simon the Canaanean (Zealous, Hebrew word). This is apparently their first preaching and healing tour without Jesus. He sends them forth by twos (Mr 6:7). Matthew names them in pairs, probably as they were sent out.
10:5 These twelve Jesus sent forth [toutous tous dōdeka apesteilen ho Iēsous]. The word “sent forth” [apesteilen] is the same root as “apostles.” The same word reappears in 10:16. Way of the Gentiles [hodon ethnōn]. Objective genitive, way leading to the Gentiles. This prohibition against going among the Gentiles and the Samaritans was for this special tour. They were to give the Jews the first opportunity and not to prejudice the cause at this stage. Later Jesus will order them to go and disciple all the Gentiles (Mt 28:19).
10:6 The lost sheep [ta probata ta apolōlota]. The sheep, the lost ones. Mentioned here first by Matthew. Jesus uses it not in blame, but in pity (Bruce). Bengel notes that Jesus says “lost” more frequently than “led astray.” “If the Jewish nation could be brought to repentance the new age would dawn” (McNeile).
10:7 As ye go, preach [poreuomenoi kērussete]. Present participle and present imperative. They were itinerant preachers on a “preaching tour,” heralds [kērukes] proclaiming good news. The summary message is the same as that of the Baptist (3:2) that first startled the country, “the kingdom of heaven has drawn nigh.” He echoed it up and down the Jordan Valley. They are to shake Galilee with it as Jesus had done (4:17). That same amazing message is needed today. But “the apprentice apostles” (Bruce) could tell not a little about the King of the Kingdom who was with them.
10:9 Get you no gold [mē ktēsēsthe]. It is not, “Do not possess” or “own,” but “do not acquire” or “procure” for yourselves, indirect middle aorist subjunctive. Gold, silver, brass (copper) in a descending scale (nor even bronze). In your purses [eis tas zōnas h–mōn]. In your girdles or belts used for carrying money.
10:10 No wallet [mē pēran]. Better than “scrip.” It can be either a travelling or bread bag. Deissmann (Light from the Ancient East, pp. 108f.) shows that it can mean the beggar’s collecting bag as in an inscription on a monument at Kefr Hanar in Syria: “While Christianity was still young the beggar priest was making his rounds in the land of Syria on behalf of the national goddess.” Deissmann also quotes a pun in the Didaskalia=Const. Apost. 3, 6 about some itinerant widows who said that they were not so much [chērai] (spouseless) as [pērai] (pouchless). He cites also Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida III. iii. 145: “Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back, wherein he puts alms for oblivion.” For the labourer is worthy of his food [axios gar ho ergatēs tēs trophēs autou]. The sermon is worth the dinner, in other words. Luke in the charge to the seventy (Lu 10:7) has the same words with [misthou] (reward) instead of [trophēs] (food). In 1Ti 5:18 Paul quotes Luke’s form as scripture [hē graphē] or as a well-known saying if confined to the first quotation. The word for workman here [ergatēs] is that used by Jesus in the prayer for labourers (Mt 9:38). The well-known Didachē or Teaching of the Twelve (xiii) shows that in the second century there was still a felt need for care on the subject of receiving pay for preaching. The travelling sophists added also to the embarrassment of the situation. The wisdom of these restrictions was justified in Galilee at this time. Mark (Mr 6:6-13) and Luke (Lu 9:1-6) vary slightly from Matthew in some of the details of the instructions of Jesus.
10:13 If the house be worthy [ean ēi hē oikia axia]. Third class condition. What makes a house worthy? “It would naturally be readiness to receive the preachers and their message” (McNeile). Hospitality is one of the noblest graces and preachers receive their share of it. The apostles are not to be burdensome as guests.
10:14 Shake off the dust [ektinaxate ton koniorton]. Shake out, a rather violent gesture of disfavour. The Jews had violent prejudices against the smallest particles of Gentile dust, not as a purveyor of disease of which they did not know, but because it was regarded as the putrescence of death. If the apostles were mistreated by a host or hostess, they were to be treated as if they were Gentiles (cf. Mt 18:17; Ac 18:6). Here again we have a restriction that was for this special tour with its peculiar perils.
10:15 More tolerable [anektoteron]. The papyri use this adjective of a convalescent. People in their vernacular today speak of feeling “tolerable.” The Galileans were having more privileges than Sodom and Gomorrah had.
10:16 As sheep in the midst of wolves [hōs probata en mesōi lukōn]. The presence of wolves on every hand was a fact then and now. Some of these very sheep (10:6) at the end will turn out to be wolves and cry for Christ’s crucifixion. The situation called for consummate wisdom and courage. The serpent was the emblem of wisdom or shrewdness, intellectual keenness (Ge 3:1; Ps 58:5), the dove of simplicity (Ho 7:11). It was a proverb, this combination, but one difficult of realization. Either without the other is bad (rascality or gullibility). The first clause with [arnas] for [probata] is in Lu 10:3 and apparently is in a Fragment of a Lost Gospel edited by Grenfell and Hunt. The combination of wariness and innocence is necessary for the protection of the sheep and the discomfiture of the wolves. For “harmless” [akeraioi] Moffatt and Goodspeed have “guileless,” Weymouth “innocent.” The word means “unmixed” [a] privative and [kerannumi], “unadulterated,” “simple,” “unalloyed.”
10:17 Beware of men [prosechete apo tōn anthrōpōn]. Ablative case with [apo]. Hold your mind [noun] understood) away from. The article with [anthrōpōn] points back to [lukōn] (wolves) in 10:16.
To councils [eis sunedria]. The local courts of justice in every Jewish town. The word is an old one from Herodotus on for any deliberative body [concilium]. The same word is used for the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem. In their synagogues [en tois sunagōgais autōn]. Here not merely as the place of assembly for worship, but as an assembly of justice exercising discipline as when the man born blind was cast out of the synagogue (Joh 9:35). They were now after the exile in every town of any size where Jews were.
10:19 Be not anxious [mē merimnēsēte]. Ingressive aorist subjunctive in prohibition. “Do not become anxious” (Mt 6:31). “Self-defence before Jewish kings and heathen governors would be a terrible ordeal for humble Galileans. The injunction applied to cases when preparation of a speech would be impossible” (McNeile). “It might well alarm the bravest of these simple fishermen to be told that they would have to answer for their doings on Christ’s behalf before Jewish councils and heathen courts” (Plummer). Christ is not talking about preparation of sermons. ”In that hour” [en ekeinēi tēi hōrāi], if not before. The Spirit of your Father will speak to you and through you (10:20). Here is no posing as martyr or courting a martyr’s crown, but real heroism with full loyalty to Christ.
10:22 Ye shall be hated [esesthe misoumenoi]. Periphrastic future passive, linear action. It will go on through the ages. For my name’s sake [dia to onoma mou]. In the O.T. as in the Targums and the Talmud “the name” as here stands for the person (Mt 19:29; Ac 5:41; 9:16; 15:26). “He that endureth to the end” [ho hupomeinas eis telos]. Effective aorist participle with future indicative.
10:23 Till the Son of man be come [heōs elthēi ho huios tou anthrōpou]. Moffatt puts it “before the Son of man arrives” as if Jesus referred to this special tour of Galilee. Jesus could overtake them. Possibly so, but it is by no means clear. Some refer it to the Transfiguration, others to the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, others to the Second Coming. Some hold that Matthew has put the saying in the wrong context. Others bluntly say that Jesus was mistaken, a very serious charge to make in his instructions to these preachers. The use of [heōs] with aorist subjunctive for a future event is a good Greek idiom.
10:25 Beelzebub [beezeboul] according to B, [beelzeboul] by most Greek MSS., [beelzeboub] by many non-Greek MSS.). The etymology of the word is also unknown, whether “lord of a dwelling” with a pun on “the master of the house” [oikodespotēn] or “lord of flies” or “lord of dung” or “lord of idolatrous sacrifices.” It is evidently a term of reproach. “An opprobrious epithet; exact form of the word and meaning of the name have given more trouble to commentators than it is all worth” (Bruce). See Mt 12:24.
10:26 Fear them not therefore [mē oun phobēthēte autous]. Repeated in verses 28 and 31 [mē phobeisthe] present middle imperative here in contrast with aorist passive subjunctive in the preceding prohibitions). Note also the accusative case with the aorist passive subjunctive, transitive though passive. See same construction in Lu 12:5. In Mt 10:28 the construction is with [apo] and the ablative, a translation Hebraism as in Lu 12:4 (Robertson, Grammar of the Greek N.T. in the Light of Historical Research, p. 577).
10:28 Destroy both soul and body in hell [kai psuchēn kai sōma apolesai en geennēi]. Note “soul” here of the eternal spirit, not just life in the body. “Destroy” here is not annihilation, but eternal punishment in Gehenna (the real hell) for which see on 5:22. Bruce thinks that the devil as the tempter is here meant, not God as the judge, but surely he is wrong. There is no more needed lesson today than the fear of God.
10:29 Two sparrows [duo strouthia]. Diminutive of [strouthos] and means any small bird, sparrows in particular. They are sold today in the markets of Jerusalem and Jaffa. “For a farthing” [assariou] is genitive of price. Only here and Lu 12:6 in the N.T. Diminutive form of the Roman as, slightly more than half an English penny. Without your Father [aneu tou patros h–mōn]. There is comfort in this thought for us all. Our father who knows about the sparrows knows and cares about us.
10:31 Than many sparrows [pollōn strouthiōn]. Ablative case of comparison with [diapherete] (our differ).
10:32 Shall confess me [homologēsei en emoi]. An Aramaic idiom, not Hebrew, see also Lu 12:8. So also here, “him will I also confess” [homologēsō k’agō en autōi]. Literally this Aramaic idiom reproduced in the Greek means “confess in me,” indicating a sense of unity with Christ and of Christ with the man who takes the open stand for him.
10:33 Shall deny me [arnēsētai me]. Aorist subjunctive here with [hostis], though future indicative [homologēsei] above. Note accusative here (case of extension), saying “no” to Christ, complete breach. This is a solemn law, not a mere social breach, this cleavage by Christ of the man who repudiates him, public and final.
10:34 I came not to send peace, but a sword [ouk ēlthon balein eirēnēn, alla machairan]. A bold and dramatic climax. The aorist infinitive means a sudden hurling of the sword where peace was expected. Christ does bring peace, not as the world gives, but it is not the force of compromise with evil, but of conquest over wrong, over Satan, the triumph of the cross. Meanwhile there will be inevitably division in families, in communities, in states. It is no namby-pamby sentimentalism that Christ preaches, no peace at any price. The Cross is Christ’s answer to the devil’s offer of compromise in world dominion. For Christ the kingdom of God is virile righteousness, not mere emotionalism.
10:35 Set at variance [dichasai]. Literally divide in two, [dicha]. Jesus uses Mic 7:1-6 to describe the rottenness of the age as Micah had done. Family ties and social ties cannot stand in the way of loyalty to Christ and righteous living. The daughter-in-law [numphēn]. Literally bride, the young wife who is possibly living with the mother-in-law. It is a tragedy to see a father or mother step between the child and Christ.
10:38 Doth not take his cross [ou lambanei ton stauron autou]. The first mention of cross in Matthew. Criminals were crucified in Jerusalem. It was the custom for the condemned person to carry his own cross as Jesus did till Simon of Cyrene was impressed for that purpose. The Jews had become familiar with crucifixion since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes and one of the Maccabean rulers (Alexander Jannaeus) had crucified 800 Pharisees. It is not certain whether Jesus was thinking of his own coming crucifixion when he used this figure, though possible, perhaps probable. The disciples would hardly think of that outcome unless some of them had remarkable insight.
10:39 Shall lose it [apolesei autēn]. This paradox appears in four forms according to Allen (I) Mt 10:39 (2) Mr 8:35; Mt 16:25; Lu 9:24 (3) Lu 17:33 (4) Joh 12:25. The Wisdom of Sirach (Hebrew text) in 51:26 has: “He that giveth his life findeth her (wisdom).” It is one of the profound sayings of Christ that he repeated many times. Plato (Gorgias 512) has language somewhat similar though not so sharply put. The article and aorist participles here [ho heurōn, ho apolesas] are timeless in themselves just like [ho dechomenos] in verses 40 and 41.
10:41 In the name of a prophet [eis onoma prophētou]. “Because he is a prophet” (Moffatt). In an Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 37 (A.D. 49) we find [onomati eleutherou] in virtue of being free-born. “He that receiveth a prophet from no ulterior motive, but simply qua prophet (ut prophetam, Jer.) would receive a reward in the coming age equal to that of his guest” (McNeile). The use of [eis] here is to be noted. In reality [eis] is simply [en] with the same meaning. It is not proper to say that [eis] has always to be translated “into.” Besides these examples of [eis onoma] in verses 41 and 43 see Mt 12:41 [eis to kērugma Iōnā] (see Robertson’s Grammar, p. 593). Unto one of these little ones [hena tōn mikrōn toutōn]. Simple believers who are neither apostles, prophets, or particularly righteous, just “learners,” “in the name of a disciple” [eis onoma mathētou]. Alford thinks that some children were present (cf. Mt 18:2-6).
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