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Warranted Christian Belief
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Index

 

Abraham, William, 90, 200, 242n, 292n

A/C Model, the, x, 168186, 199, 201, 241. See also Extended A/C Model, the

and basicality with respect to justification, 177178

and basicality with respect to rationality, 175177

and basicality with respect to warrant, 178179

models, 168

and perceptual vs. experiential knowledge, 180184

Plantinga’s claims regarding, 168170, 325

and sin, 184186

actualism, 114

Adams, Marilyn, 489n, 493n

Adams, Robert, 27n, 461n

affections, religious, x, 202, 290323

and analogues of rationality, justification, and warrant, 202, 309311

degrees of, 310

and justification, 310

and sin, 295

and voluntary control, 310n

and warrant, 310311

Aiken, Henry David, 461n

Allegro, John, 401

Allen, Diogenes, 493n

Allison, Henry, 13n

Alston, William, xiii, xiv, 33, 109, 135, 153n, 300, 313n, 336, 402n, 406n, 407n, 423, 466, 471n

on justification, 104107

and perception (vs. experience) of God, 180184, 286289

on practical rationality, 117134

Alter, Robert, 390

Alvin Plantinga, 26n, 28n, 114n, 461n

Ameriks, Karl, 13n, 19n

Anselm, 303

Apostle’s Creed, 202

Aquinas/Calvin Model. See A/C Model

Aquinas, Thomas, v, x, 1314, 72, 82n, 167, 168, 170, 176177, 199, 204n, 205n, 242, 245, 249, 250n, 251, 266n, 269n, 270n, 292n, 293, 374, 383, 439, 440

Aristotle, 13, 72, 109, 146, 424

Armstrong, David, 392n

arrogance. See belief in God, and arrogance

Atonement, the, 201

Attridge, Harold, 418n

Auerbach, Erich, 321n

Augsburg Confession, 202

Augustine, St., v, 26n, 198, 210, 211, 245, 307, 312313, 320n, 374, 383, 423

Ayer, A. J., 7n, 42

 

Baillie, John, 326

Barth, Karl, 245, 374

basic beliefs, 8385, 175177, 343349

Bayes’s Theorem, 229231

Beilby, James, 229n

Belgic Confession, 379, 490

belief

and aesthetic factors, 306308

a priori belief, 105, 111, 145, 146, 175, 178179, 183, 194, 264, 331

ethics of, 407410

grounds for, 104107

memory beliefs, 105, 110, 128, 175, 178, 194, 262, 264, 331

perceptual beliefs, 127, 175, 178, 194, 262, 331

and relationship to behavior, 231237

voluntary control over, 96, 104, 122, 444n

whether God has them, 125n

withholding, 184185

belief in God. See also sensus divinitatis; faith

and arrogance, 253254, 443447

belief in God vs. belief that God exists, 293294

and Bible, 375421

defeaters for, 357499

degree of belief, 265n

and experience, 180184

explanatory idleness, 370372

false but warranted?, 186188

and Great Things of the Gospel, 301

and history, 420421

as a hypothesis, 9192, 329331, 371, 476477

naturalistic explanations of, 145

objections to. See objections to belief in God

and other religions, 349351

as perceptual knowledge, 180184, 286289, 337338

projective theories of, 358, 367373

if produced by “ordinary faculties”, 270271

properly basic, 175178, 258259, 262n, 264268, 342349

properly basic with respect to warrant, 178180, 186190, 343, 346351

and relationship between the intellect and will, 295304

and religious affections, 291323

and religious experience, 326353

as self-authenticating, 259262

and sin, 184186

as supernatural gift, 245, 246n

true but unwarranted?, 189190

and truth, 169170, 201, 424425, 499

voluntary control of belief, 172173

and wish-fulfillment, 307

Bergmann, Gustav, 429n

Bergmann, Michael, 359n

Beversluis, John, 171n–172n

Bible, the, 201, 205, 243, 249252, 258263, 270280, 284, 374421, 454

authority of, 383384

canon, 377380

inspiration of, 252, 261, 268n, 270272, 375380, 384385

interpretation, 381383, 385

and proper basicality, 258263

reliability of, 261

revelation of events or propositions, 251n

scientific study of, 387390

as self-authenticating, 259262

and theological disagreements, 381382

and traditional biblical commentary, 383385

Bird, Graham, 12

Blanshard, Brand, 89, 90

Bodin, Jean, 438

Bonaventure, St., 242

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 213n

Borg, Marcus, 403n

Bradley, F. H., 461n

Brown, Raymond, 384n, 387

Bultmann, Rudolf, vii, 247, 393, 403, 405, 406

 

Calvin, John, v, x, 131n, 139n, 148, 168, 199, 201, 205n, 206, 217, 240, 242, 244, 245, 256262, 264n, 269n, 281, 290293, 294, 305, 374, 383, 423, 454, 490

on faith, 247251, 256

and the Holy Spirit, 256, 260, 292293

on knowledge of God’s essence, 4647

on Scripture, 259261

and the sensus divinitatis, 170174

on sin, 211212

Calvinism, 200, 253

Camus, Albert, 487

Cantor’s Theorem, 107

Carnap, Rudolf, 8, 78

Carroll, Michael P., 192

Cavin, Robert, 276n

Celsus, 277n

certainty, 84

Chesterton, G. K., 207, 357

Childs, Brevard, 400, 411412

Chisholm, Roderick, 95, 110, 429n, 444

Christian Mystical Practice, 117134

agnosticism about the deliverances of, 131

Chrysostom, John, 374

church, the, 277278

Cicero, 171n

circularity, epistemic, 118119

Classical Foundationalism. See Foundationalism, Classical

Classical Package, the. See Foundationalism, Classical; Deontologism, Classical; and evidentialism

Clifford, W. K., 89, 409

cognitive reliability, 222227,

defeaters for, 227240

presumption of, 148, 151, 226227

coherence, 112

Collins, John, 390391, 393, 411

conditionalization, 419420

conversion, 311

Cook, Martin, 407n

Cooper, John, 481n

counterfactuals, 461n

Creationism, 217n

credulity, 147

Crisp, Thomas, 159n

Crossan, John Dominic, 402n

cultural relativism. See relativism, historical and cultural

Cummins, Robert, 236

Cupitt, Don, 39n, 144, 150n, 215

 

Daniels, Charles, 144

Darwin, Charles, 137, 234

Darwinism, 408. See also evolution

Davis, Stephen T., 242n

Dawkins, Richard, 42, 150, 177, 200, 227, 245

De Bres, Guido, 490

De Vries, Paul, 443n

deconstruction, 422423

defeaters, xxi, 161, 190n, 224, 243n, 255, 352353, 358499,

argumentative/nonargumentative, 426427

irrational or unwarranted defeaters, 364366

nature of, 359366

“optimistic overrider”, 362363

partial, 362n, 368

purely epistemic defeaters, 363364

rationality defeaters, 359, 368369

rebutting, 258n, 359

relative to one’s noetic structure, 360361, 485

undercutting, 359

warrant defeaters, 359360

defeaters for Christian belief, 366367

evil, problem of, 458498

historical-critical Scripture scholarship, 374421

nonargumentive, 481484

postmodernism, 422437

religious pluralism, 437457

deism, semi-, 404406

Dennett, Daniel, 42, 113, 150n, 177, 200, 227, 229n, 245, 386, 463

Deontologism, Classical, 8182, 8588. See also justification

variations on, 103105

Derrida, Jacques, 423n, 427, 431, 437

Descartes, René, 21, 71, 75, 84, 94, 98, 111, 124, 129n, 133, 149, 202n, 220 221, 344, 392n, 436

design, argument from, 463

Devitt, Michael, 13

Dewey, John, 429n, 432

divine discourse, 376. See also Wolterstorff, Nicholas

Dole, Andrew, 257n

Donne, John, 314n

Dostoevski, Fyodor, 483

Draper, Paul, 469474

Dryer, D. P., 13n

Duhem, Pierre, 395398. See also historical biblical criticism, Duhemian

Durkheim, Emile, 358, 367

duty, epistemic, 9899, 178, 447448. See also Deontologism, Classical

and arrogance/egoism, 448457

objective vs. subjective duty, 99

 

Edwards, Jonathan, 80, 100, 197, 214n, 242, 249, 259, 262n, 287, 290, 294 309, 313, 317, 320, 351, 374, 380n, 423

on intellect and will, 295304

on sin, 296297

Einstein, Albert, 306, 428

Ellis, Albert, 192

Engels, Friedrich, 141n, 192n

Enlightenment, the, 71, 85, 147, 152n, 252, 382

Epicurus, 459

epiphenomenalism, 231233

eros, 311323. See also belief in God, and the religious affections

human vs. divine, 321323

Esterson, Allen, 197n

Evans, C. Stephen, 242n, 402n

evidence, 8284, 88

doxastic (or impulsional), 111n, 183, 264, 333

evidentialism, viii, 7071, 8182, 86, 8891, 102

evil. See also problem of evil

gratuitous, 465481

moral, 458

natural, 358

and the sensus divinitatis, 484

evolution, 150151, 154, 214, 227240, 330

and true belief, 231237

Evolutionary Argument against Naturalism, the, 227240, 281284, 350351

exclusivism, 438, 440

as arbitrary, 442457

definition of, 440

experience, religious. See religious experience

Extended A/C Model, 241242, 285, 330, 375, 455, 486

defeaters for. See defeaters for Christian belief

initial statement, 203206

necessity of, 268280

objections to, 324353

Plantinga’s claims regarding, 201, 325, 351

 

F & M complaint, the, 137153, 155, 161163, 167168, 178, 192198. See also Freud, Sigmund; Marx, Karl

faith, 168, 186, 200201, 206, 246289, 303, 416

Calvin’s definition of, 248

content of, 248249

and evidence, 265

and external rationality, 256258

and historical biblical criticism, 412420

and internal rationality, 256

and justification, 252255

and knowledge, 256

as “a leap of faith”, 263264

Mark Twain’s opinion of, 246247

and other belief-forming mechanisms, 262n

and warrant, 256258

and the will and affections, 206, 247, 269, 293

Fales, Evan, 138n

fall, the, 211213. See also sin

Feenstra, Ronald, 317n

Feldman, Richard, 157n

fideism, 73

Findlay, J. N., 421

Finke, Roger, 193n

Fitelson, Branden, 229n

Flew, Antony, 8n, 89, 100

Flint, Thomas, 461n

Fodor, Jerry, 229n, 404n

Foucault, Michel, 71

foundational beliefs, 8385

Foundationalism, Classical, 8185, 9399, 408, 422, 447

Chisholm’s defense of, 9597

relationship to evidence, 8284

self-referential incoherence, 9497

variations on, 102103

Francis of Sales, 313n, 315

Fraser, Alexander, 72n

Freddoso, Alfred, 82n

free will, 258, 461462

selective, 461n

Free Will Defense, the, 461462

Frege, Gottlob, 27, 344n, 361

Frei, Hans, 247n

Freud, Sigmund, vi, viii, ix, x, 100, 135140, 142145, 149, 151152, 161163, 167, 184, 186, 188, 191, 192198, 200, 307, 315316, 358, 362, 367368, 427, 484. See also wish fulfillment

Frye, Northrop, 143144

Fuller, Margaret, 247

function, 146, 154155. See also proper function; warrant

fundamentalism, 244245

 

Gale, Richard, 90, 300n, 335342

Gaskin, J. C. A., 90

Gellner, Ernest, 423

genetic fallacy, 194

Gettier example, 156157, 189, 285286

Gilkey, Langdon, 394, 403, 404, 405, 413

Gilson, Etienne, 171n, 419

Ginet, Carl, 153n, 359

God

impassibility, 319320

perception of, 180184

reference to, 363

God and Other Minds, 68, 6970, 81, 136

God, Freedom, and Evil, 460n, 461n

Gödel, Kurt, 440

Goodman, Nelson, 208n

Great Pumpkin Objection, 342345

Son of Great Pumpkin, 345351

Great things of the Gospel, the, 80, 101, 247n, 248249, 252, 304305

and inference, 304305

Greek philosophy and the Bible, 319

Grim, Patrick, 7n, 202n

Grünbaum, Adolf, 152n, 197n

Gutting, Gary, 91, 336, 339, 431433, 447450, 454n, 455457

 

Haas, John, 481n

Hardy, Lee, 443n

Harvey, Anthony E., 415

Harvey, Van Austin, 375, 391, 401, 403404, 408410, 413

Hasker, William, 461n

HBC. See historical biblical criticism

Hegel, G. W. F., 141n

Heidegger, Martin, 208n, 423, 427, 436

Heidelberg Catechism, 62n, 122, 195, 202, 208n, 247, 248n, 256, 288

Hempel, Carl, 8n

Herbert, George, 307n

Herodotus, 271

Hick, John, 5, 31, 4363, 428n, 438, 443n, 444, 498

Kantian elements, 4344

mythological truth, 5657, 61

positive vs. negative properties, 5255

on religious pluralism, 438

substantial vs. formal properties, 4549

historical biblical criticism, vi, xi, 243n, 375, 386401, 411n

arguments for, 403412

disagreements within, 402

Duhemian, 395398, 407n, 411412, 415417, 419

effectiveness, 420421

and faith, 387390

Non-Troeltschian, 414418, 421

as a project of the Enlightenment, 386387

reasons to reject, 412420

and scientific study of Scripture, 387388

Spinozistic, 398399, 407n, 412, 415416, 419

and traditional biblical commentary, 419420

Troeltschian, 390395, 404409, 411414, 419421

historical relativism. See relativism, historical and cultural

Holy Spirit, x, 33, 81, 101, 148, 180, 184, 186, 199201, 206, 241, 243245, 246n, 247, 249253, 255260, 268269, 277, 280282, 284, 290, 292 293, 295, 304, 378380

internal instigation of, 130, 148, 180, 201, 206, 249252, 255, 268, 330, 334 338, 343, 347, 374, 380, 416, 453, 455, 478

and production of faith, 249252

why necessary?, 268280

Howsepian, Albert, 202n

Hume, David, 9, 75, 92n, 97, 98, 130, 142143, 155, 185, 200, 215n, 218227, 239, 241, 261, 284285, 298, 350, 404, 421, 459, 470n

Huxley, T. H., 232

 

Iannaccone, Laurence, 193n

IIHS. See Holy Spirit, internal instigation of

Image of God, 204

broad, 204

narrow, 204

Incarnation, the, 201

incorrigible beliefs, 76, 84

induction, 147

intellect and will

dependency relations between, 301

priority, 295304

introspection, 147

involuntarism. See voluntarism

 

James, William, 70n, 89, 311, 313n, 326

Jantzen, Grace, 423n

Jeffreys, Derek, 204n

Jesus Christ, 199, 202, 214, 243, 254, 270277, 280, 290, 375, 377378, 384n, 385, 389390

Historical Jesus, the, 399401, 415, 418n

necessity for salvation, 243n

resurrection of, 275277, 400401, 405406, 413

suffering of, 487

Jesus Seminar, 389n, 403n

John Paul II, Pope, 488n, 493n

Johnson, Luke Timothy, 389, 400, 416

Jones, E. M., 196

Jowett, Benjamin, 388n, 414

justification (pertaining to epistemology), ix, 7071, 8788, 93, 100102, 108, 177178, 186, 200, 203, 241242, 246, 286, 346347, 448449

Alston justification, 104107, 135

and faith, 252255

objective vs. subjective, 102n, 203

and rationality, 109

justification (pertaining to salvation), 265

 

Kane, G, Stanley, 461n

Kant, Immanuel, viii, 5, 730, 31, 33, 43, 51n, 59, 75, 173, 404, 436, 498

antinomies, 2127

“One World” interpretation, 1214

reference to the noumenon, 1420

“Two Worlds” interpretation, 1012, 1620

Kaufman, Gordon, 4, 5, 16, 3142, 382n–383n, 498

connections to Kant, 33

objections to God as personal, 3942

objections to language about God, 3138

Kenny, Anthony, 90, 227n

Keynes, J. M., 78

Kierkegaard, Søren, 436

Klein, Peter, 157n

knowledge, ix, 72, 153, 159n, 248n, 256, 264

Kretzmann, Norman, 82n, 103

Kuyper, Abraham, 314n, 318n, 319n, 404n, 423, 436, 489

 

Lacan, Jacques, 423

Laplace, 92

Lehrer, Keith, 256n, 282283

Leibniz, 51n, 52, 307

Levenson, Jon, 388, 400n, 412, 417

Levine, Michael, 317

Lewis, C. S., 205, 216n, 317n, 318n, 322n

Lewis, David, 392n, 461n

Lindars, Barnabas, 389, 417

Lindbeck, George, 247n

Livingston, James C., 407n

Locke, John, 7188, 90, 9394, 98, 108, 147, 266268, 271n, 298, 344, 386, 408

on deduction, 78, 102

on different kinds of knowledge, 7577

on fideism, 73

on opinion, 7477

on probability, 78, 84

on reason, 7778

regulating opinion and reason, 74, 79

on Revelation, 7981

on testimony, 84, 147

on tradition, 7374, 147

logical positivism, 7

Lombard, Peter, 211n

Lüdemann, Gerd, 401

Luther, Martin, v, 211n, 245, 292n,293294

 

MacIntyre, Alasdair, 8n

Mackie, John, 9092, 100, 103, 200, 332, 335, 386

and evidentialism, 8586, 9192

on the problem of evil, 460461, 463

on religious experience, 328331

Macmillan, Malcolm, 197n

Macquarrie, John, 253, 394, 403, 404, 405, 406

Martin, Michael, 343349

Marx, Karl, vi, ix, x, 100, 135136, 140143, 149, 151152, 162163, 167, 184, 191, 192, 358, 367368, 427

Matthews, H. E., 13n

Mayr, Ernst, 228

McCloskey, H. J., 461n

McFague, Sallie, 5n

McGonagall, William E., 50

McMullin, Ernan, 414n

McTaggart, J., 461n

Meier, John, 387n, 398, 415416

Meinong, Alexius, 429

Menzel, Christopher, 281n

Merricks, Trenton, 159n

metaphysics, 395396

methodological naturalism, 387390, 396398

Mill, John Stuart, 21, 195, 461n

Milton, John, 209, 291n

miracles, 269n, 284, 394395, 400, 403404, 412

Mitchell, Basil, 90

models, 168. See also A/C Model; Extended A/C Model

Moore, Brian, 207n

Mormonism, 202

Morris, Thomas, 281n

Muyskens, James, 263n

 

natural laws, 177, 392395

natural theology, 69, 130, 171n, 175176, 179n

naturalism, xii, 439

the Evolutionary Argument against Naturalism, 227240, 281284, 350351

Nature of Necessity, The, 26n, 35n, 115n, 461n

Negative Theology, 5n, 4546

New Catholic Catechism, 202

Newman, John, 97, 454455

Nicene Creed, 202

Nielsen, Kai, 100

Nietzsche, Friedrich, vi, ix, 58, 100, 123, 136, 142, 200, 291, 423, 427

Noble, Paul, 351

noetic effects of sin, the. See sin, noetic effects of

Nygren, Anders, 319n

 

O’Hair, Madalyn Murray, 42

O’Hear, Anthony, 90, 326329, 333

Oakes, Edward T., 215n

objections to belief in God

de facto, viviii, x, 3, 167, 169, 191, 194

de jure objection, viiix, x, 6769, 88, 93, 102, 105108, 113114, 116117, 132133, 135, 167, 169, 191, 194

relationship between the de jure and de facto objections, 190191

obligation, epistemic. See Classical Deontologism

Ockham’s Razor, 369370

omniscience, 7n

ontological argument, the, 55n

Origen, 439

Ostler, Blake T., 202n

Ostow, Mortimer, 315n

Otte, Richard, 486

Otto, Rudolf, 183

 

parity, epistemic, 451453

Pascal, Blaise, 210, 436

Paul, the Apostle, 9899, 167, 171, 177, 181, 198, 210, 216n, 243, 252n, 269, 280, 288, 290

Pauw, Amy Plantinga, 314

Peirce, Charles Sanders, 84, 174n, 215n

Penelhum, Terence, 91

perceptual beliefs, 7677

Perrin, Norman, 276

Phillips, D. Z., 8n

Piper, John, 320

Plantinga, Cornelius, 320n, 490n

Plaskow, Judith, 150

Plato, 72, 75, 146, 153, 383

pluralism. See religious pluralism

Pollock, John, 114n, 359n

possibility

epistemic vs. logical, 168, 169n

postliberalism, 247n

postmodernism, 247n, 252, 385

on argumentation and defeaters, 426

and authorial intent, 385

and the death of epistemology, 72

as defeater for Christian belief, 422423, 425437

and historical conditionedness, 427429

inconsistent with Christian belief?, 423425

on truth, 424425, 429438

Preus, J. Samuel, 145n

Pringle, William, 399

probability, 441442

Bayesian, 223n, 229231, 272n

epistemic, 272n, 471472, 485

and evil, 462482

objective, 105, 107, 188, 223n, 230, 272n

problem of evil, vi, xi, 115, 427, 459

and the Book of Job, 494498

evidential, 462481

goal of, 464

logical, 460464

as nonargumentative defeater for Christian belief, 481484

as a successful defeater for Christian belief, 480481, 491

topics under the rubric of, 459n

proper function, ix, 133, 146, 154155 See also warrant

properly basic belief. See belief in God, properly basic

properties, 1516

psychoanalysis, 140, 196

 

Quine, W. V. O., 217, 221, 234

Quinn, Philip, 95n, 358, 366367, 369373, 460, 492

 

rationality, ix, 108134, 179n, 185, 200, 241242, 345347

Alstonian practical rationality, 117134, 286

Aristotelian, 109, 110, 113, 114, 116

and coherence, 112

and the deliverances of reason, 113115

deontological rationality

external, 112113, 200, 204, 246, 256258, 356

internal, 110112, 200, 203, 246, 255, 365, 492

means-end rationality, 115117, 121

as proper function, 110113

and theological disagreements, 255n

Rawls, John, 122

Real, the. See Hick, John

realism, theological, 144

reason, 146149

“Reason and Belief in God”, 68, 82n, 93n, 136, 173n, 176n, 178, 213n

Reformation, the, 71

Reformed Epistemology, 200n

Reformed Scholasticism, 292

Reformed theology, 200, 253

regeneration, 280, 299300. See also salvation

Reid, Thomas, 97, 98, 118, 130, 147, 216, 218227, 258, 386, 432

relativism

epistemic, 433

historical and cultural, 423, 427429

religious experience, 180184, 258

cognitivity, 335342

objections to belief in God receiving warrant from, 326353

religious language, 3262

religious pluralism, xi, 422

and arbitrariness of Christian belief, 44144

and the arrogance/egoism of Christian belief, 447456

effect on Christian belief, 456457

as a probabilistic defeater for Christian belief, 441442

representationalism, 432433

resolution condition, 158161. See also warrant

Revelation, Divine, 7981

Rey, Abel, 395, 396n

Rorty, Richard, 112n, 131, 208n, 221, 423n, 427, 437, 449

on truth, 429435

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 142, 193

Rowe, William, 465469

Runzo, Joseph, 439n

Russell, Bertrand, 27, 42, 89, 114, 157, 185, 223, 227, 344, 361

Russell, Bruce, 466n

Ryan, Sharon, 159n

 

Sagan, Carl, 202n

Salmon, Nathan, 114n

Salmon, Wesley, 90

salvation, 201202, 205, 280282

and the affections, 208213, 280, 295

the nature of, 206213

original sin, 207

and pride, 211214

Sanders, E. P., 388, 397398, 417

Sartre, Jean-Paul, 318, 423

Satan, 282, 494

Schellenberg, J. L., 441442

Schmidt, Wilhelm, 138n

Schweitzer, Albert, 418n

scientia, 72, 82n

Scougal, Henry, 313314

Scripture. See Bible, the

Scriven, Michael, 89

self-evidence, 7576, 113114, 128, 260262

self-referential incoherence/inconsistency, 9497, 446

semantic epiphenomenalism, 233234

sensus divinitatis, 130, 131n, 139n, 148, 172176, 178, 180, 182184, 186, 199, 205, 214216, 240, 245, 246n, 280281, 305, 330, 334335, 343, 347, 453, 455, 484487, 490492

damage of, 210, 214216

repair of, 280281

resistance to, 205

Seraphim of Sarov, St., 292

serious actualism, 114

Sheehan, Thomas, 275n, 400n–402n

Shope, Robert, 156n

Simon, Herbert, 193n, 214n

simplicity, 308

sin, x, 190, 199240, 257258, 280283, 316, 427

and consequences of failing to know God, 217240

divine remedy for, 201202

and lack of knowledge, 227240

noetic effects of, 172n, 179n, 189, 190, 206, 213216, 280282

as sloth, 215

and skepticism, 218227

skepticism, vii, 4, 218227, 428

Smith, Huston, 404n

Smith, J. M., 232

Smith, John E., 100n

Smith, Morton, 275n, 400

Smith, Wilfred Cantwell, 443

Sober, Elliott, 229n

Socrates, 208209

Spinoza, 386, 398399

Stark, Rodney, 193n

Steup, Matthias, 153n

Strauss, David, 393n–394n, 399

Stump, Eleonore, 82n, 402n, 493n, 494n

Swinburne, Richard, 90, 153n, 261n, 266n, 271n, 272280, 336, 384n

Sudduth, Michael, 176n

suffering, 458, 493494. See also problem of evil

sympathy, 147

 

Talbott, William, 363n

Tamburello, Dennis, 292n

Taylor, James, 153n

Teresa of Liseaux, 491n

Tertullian, 216

Testimonial Model, 266267, 290323. See also Extended A/C Model, the necessity of

testimony, 147, 186n, 215, 251252, 258, 268, 374

and transfer of warrant, 348, 364, 377

theism, 202n

theistic arguments/proofs, 69, 131, 462463

theodicy, 459

Theresa of Avila, 311, 342

Thiering, Barbara, 400

Thomas, the Apostle, 254, 265266

Tillich, Paul, 202, 215

Trinity, the, 199, 319320, 488, 489

Social Trinity, the, 320n

Troeltsch, Ernst, 390395. See also historical biblical criticism, Troeltschian

truth, 216, 422423, 436437, 443444

and fallibilism, 436437

as human construction, 423, 429436

and language, 434436

rejection of, 424425

and tolerance, 443447

Turner, Donald, 463n

Tyrell, James, 72

 

Van Cleve, James, 13n

van Fraassen, Bas, 177n, 210n, 227, 233n, 392n, 420n

van Inwagen, Peter, 466, 471n

van Til, Cornelius, 217

Vander Zee, Leonard, 481n

Verifiability Criterion of Meaning, 8, 34n

Vitz, Paul, 196n

Voltaire, François, 193

voluntarism

and affections, 310n

and belief, 96, 104, 122

Vos, Arvin, 250n

 

Wainwright, William, 300n, 336, 351n

Wallace, Anthony F. C., 193n

warrant, ix, 135, 153161, 167198, 199200, 204, 206, 241242, 246, 346351, 476

and cognitive mini/maxienvironments, 158161, 256257, 360, 480

and a congenial environment, 155

degrees of, 456

derivative warrant, 283284

and design plan, 154, 156, 486

and evidential considerations, 477478

and the F&M complaint, 161

and faith, 256258, 270271

and false belief, 186188

and Gettier examples, 156159

and malfunctioning cognitive faculties, 286

and misleading evidence, 158160

and proper basicality, 178180

as proper function, 153154, 155

relative to circumstances/environment, 428429

and religious experience, 326353

and resolution conditions, 157161

and supernatural production of a belief, 245246, 246n

and testimony, 348, 364

and truth, 155157, 159n, 347

Warrant: the Current Debate, ix, xii, 68, 71, 82n, 88n, 98, 99n, 104n, 109, 130n, 153, 222, 419n

Warrant and Proper Function, ix, x, xii, 21n, 68, 76n, 78n, 94n, 105n–106n, 110, 111, 113n, 146n–149n, 153, 154n–155n, 156, 159n, 161n, 183, 186n, 188n, 194, 229, 237, 238n, 251n, 258, 261n, 272n, 285n, 328, 332333, 377n, 428, 435n, 472, 476n

Weinberg, Steven, 306307

Wells, G. A., 401

Wesley, John, 288, 292n

Westminster Catechism, 202, 317

Westphal, Merold, 9n, 14, 136n

Wilken, Robert, 439n

will, the, 204, 292. See also affections, religious; intellect and will, priority

Willard, Samuel, 314, 317

Williams, Bernard, 317

Wilson, Warren, 193

wish fulfillment, vii, viii, 101, 139140, 142, 194198, 307, 315316, 362364, 368n See also Freud, Sigmund

Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 8n, 118, 432

Wolterstorff, Nicholas, xiii, 8n, 38n, 68n, 71n, 251n, 271n, 377n, 423n

Woozley, A. D., 74

Wykstra, Stephen, 90, 102, 466

 

Yale School, 247n

Yeago, David, 387n

 

Zagzebski, Linda, 82n

Zeis, John, 82n

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