Conspiracy of the Jewish Authorities to Put
Jesus to Death—Compact with
1, 2. (See on Mt
3. Then entered Satan, &c.—but not
yet in the full sense. The awful stages of it were these: (1)
Covetousness being his master—passion, the Lord let it
reveal itself and gather strength by entrusting him with "the bag"
12:6), as treasurer to
Himself and the Twelve. (2) In the discharge of that most sacred trust
he became "a thief," appropriating its contents from time to time to
his own use. Satan, seeing this door into his heart standing wide open,
determines to enter by it, but cautiously (2Co 2:11); first merely "putting it into his
heart to betray Him" (Joh 13:2),
suggesting the thought to him that by this means he might enrich
himself. (3) This thought was probably converted into a settled purpose
by what took place in Simon's house at Bethany. (See Mt 26:6, and see on Joh
12:4-8.) (4) Starting back, perhaps, or mercifully held back, for
some time, the determination to carry it into immediate effect was not
consummated till, sitting at the paschal supper, "Satan entered into
him" (see on Joh 13:27), and conscience,
effectually stifled, only rose again to be his tormentor. What lessons
in all this for every one (Eph 4:27; Jas 4:7; 1Pe 5:8, 9)!
5. money—"thirty pieces of silver"
26:15); thirty shekels, the
fine payable for man- or maid-servant accidentally killed (Ex 21:32), and equal to between four and five
pounds of our money—"a goodly price that I was priced at
of them" (Zec 11:13).
(See on Joh 19:16.)
6. in the absence, &c.—(See Mt 26:5).
Lu 22:7-38. Last
Passover—Institution of the
Supper—Discourse at the
7. the day of unleavened bread—strictly
the fifteenth Nisan (part of our March and April) after the
paschal lamb was killed; but here, the fourteenth (Thursday). Into the
difficult questions raised on this we cannot here enter.
10-13. when ye are entered the city—He
Himself probably stayed at Bethany during the day.
there shall a man, &c.—(See on Lu 19:29-32).
14-18. the hour—about six P.M. Between three and this hour the lamb was killed
15. With desire …
desired—"earnestly have I longed" (as Ge 31:30, "sore longedst"). Why? It was to be His
last "before He suffered"—and so became "Christ our Passover
sacrificed for us" (1Co 5:7), when
it was "fulfilled in the Kingdom of God," the typical ordinance
17. took the cup—the first of several
partaken of in this service.
divide it among, &c.—that
is, It is to be your last as well as Mine, "until the Kingdom of
God come," or as it is beautifully given in Mt 26:29, "until that day when I shall drink it
new with you in my Father's kingdom." It was the point of transition
between two economies and their two great festivals, the one about
to close for ever, the other immediately to open and run its majestic
career until from earth it be transferred to heaven.
21, 22. (See on Joh
24-30. there was—or "had been,"
referring probably to some symptoms of the former strife which had
reappeared, perhaps on seeing the whole paschal arrangements committed
to two of the Twelve. (See on Mr 10:42-45.)
25. benefactors—a title which the vanity
of princes eagerly coveted.
26. But ye … not—Of how little
avail has this condemnation of "lordship" and vain titles been against
the vanity of Christian ecclesiastics?
28. continued, &c.—affecting
evidence of Christ's tender susceptibility to human sympathy and
support! (See on Joh 6:66, 67; see Joh 16:32.)
29. I appoint, &c.—Who is this that
dispenses kingdoms, nay, the Kingdom of kingdoms, within an hour or two
of His apprehension, and less than a day of His shameful death? These
sublime contrasts, however, perpetually meet and entrance us in this
30. eat and drink, &c.—(See Lu 22:16 and see on Lu
31-34. Simon, Simon—(See on Lu 10:41).
desired to have—rather, "hath
obtained you," properly "asked and obtained"; alluding to Job (Job
1:6-12; 2:1-6), whom he
solicited and obtained that he might sift him as wheat, insinuating as
"the accuser of the brethren" (Re 12:10), that he would find chaff enough in his
religion, if indeed there was any wheat at all.
you—not Peter only, but them
32. But I have prayed—have been doing it
for thee—as most in danger. (See on Lu 22:61, 62.)
fail not—that is, entirely; for
partially it did fail.
converted—brought back afresh as a
strengthen, &c.—that is, make use
of thy bitter experience for the fortifying of thy tempted
33. I am ready, &c.—honest-hearted,
warmly-attached disciple, thinking thy present feelings immovable as a
rock, thou shalt find them in the hour of temptation unstable as water:
"I have been praying for thee," therefore thy faith shall not perish;
but thinking this superfluous, thou shalt find that "he that trusteth
in his own heart is a fool" (Pr 28:26).
34. cock … crow—"twice" (Mr 14:30).
35-38. But now—that you are going forth
not as before on a temporary mission, provided for without purse or
scrip, but into scenes of continued and severe trial, your
methods must be different; for purse and scrip will now be
needed for support, and the usual means of defense.
37. the things concerning me—decreed and
have an end—are rapidly drawing to a
38. two swords … enough—they
thinking He referred to present defense, while His answer showed He
meant something else.
Lu 22:39-46. Agony in the
39. as … wont—(See Joh 18:2).
40. the place—the Garden of Gethsemane,
on the west or city side of the mount. Comparing all the accounts of
this mysterious scene, the facts appear to be these: (1) He bade nine
of the Twelve remain "here" while He went and prayed "yonder." (2) He
"took the other three, Peter, James, and John, and began to be sore
amazed [appalled], sorrowful, and very heavy [oppressed], and said, My
soul is exceeding sorrowful even unto death"—"I feel as if nature
would sink under this load, as if life were ebbing out, and death
coming before its time"—"tarry ye here, and watch with Me"; not,
"Witness for Me," but, "Bear Me company." It did Him good, it seems, to
have them beside Him. (3) But soon even they were too much for Him: He
must be alone. "He was withdrawn from them about a
stone's-cast"—though near enough for them to be competent
witnesses and kneeled down, uttering that most affecting prayer (Mr 14:36), that if possible "the cup," of
His approaching death, "might pass from Him, but if not, His
Father's will be done": implying that in itself it was so purely
revolting that only its being the Father's will would induce Him to
taste it, but that in that view of it He was perfectly prepared
to drink it. It is no struggle between a reluctant and a compliant
will, but between two views of one event—an abstract and a
relative view of it, in the one of which it was
revolting, in the other welcome. By signifying how it
felt in the one view, He shows His beautiful oneness with
ourselves in nature and feeling; by expressing how He regarded it in
the other light, He reveals His absolute obediential subjection to His
Father. (4) On this, having a momentary relief, for it came upon Him,
we imagine, by surges, He returns to the three, and finding them
sleeping, He addresses them affectingly, particularly Peter, as
14:37, 38. He then (5) goes
back, not now to kneel, but fell on His face on the ground, saying the
same words, but with this turn, "If this cup may not pass,"
26:42)—that is, 'Yes, I
understand this mysterious silence (Ps 22:1-6); it may not pass; I am to drink it, and
I will'—"Thy will be done!" (6) Again, for a moment relieved, He
returns and finds them "sleeping for sorrow," warns them as before, but
puts a loving construction upon it, separating between the "willing
spirit" and the "weak flesh." (7) Once more, returning to His solitary
spot, the surges rise higher, beat more tempestuously, and seem ready
to overwhelm Him. To fortify Him for this, "there appeared an angel
unto Him from heaven strengthening Him"—not to minister light or
comfort (He was to have none of that, and they were not needed nor
fitted to convey it), but purely to sustain and brace up sinking nature
for a yet hotter and fiercer struggle. And now, He is "in an agony, and
prays more earnestly"—even Christ's prayer, it seems, admitted of
and now demanded such increase—"and His sweat was as it were
great drops [literally, 'clots'] of blood falling down to the ground."
What was this? Not His proper sacrificial offering, though
essential to it. It was just the internal struggle, apparently hushing
itself before, but now swelling up again, convulsing His whole inner
man, and this so affecting His animal nature that the sweat oozed out
from every pore in thick drops of blood, falling to the ground. It was
just shuddering nature and indomitable will struggling
together. But again the cry, If it must be, Thy will be done,
issues from His lips, and all is over. "The bitterness of death is
past." He has anticipated and rehearsed His final conflict, and won the
victory—now on the theater of an invincible will, as then
on the arena of the Cross. "I will suffer," is the grand result
of Gethsemane: "It is finished" is the shout that bursts from the
Cross. The Will without the Deed had been all in vain; but His work was
consummated when He carried the now manifested Will into the palpable
Deed, "by the which WILL we
are sanctified THROUGH THE OFFERING OF THE
BODY OF Jesus Christ once for all" (Heb 10:10). (8) At the close of the whole scene,
finding them still sleeping (worn out with continued sorrow and racking
anxiety), He bids them, with an irony of deep emotion, "sleep on now
and take their rest, the hour is come, the Son of man is betrayed into
the hands of sinners, rise, let us be going, the traitor is at hand."
And while He spoke, Judas approached with his armed band. Thus they
proved "miserable comforters," broken reeds; and thus in His whole work
He was alone, and "of the people there was none with Him."
Lu 22:47-54. Betrayal and
Apprehension of Jesus—Flight of
Lu 22:55-62. Jesus before
Caiaphas—Fall of Peter.
The particulars of these two sections require a
combination of all the narratives, for which see on Joh 18:1-27.
61. And the Lord turned, and looked upon
Peter—(Also see on Mr 14:72.)
62. And Peter went out, and wept
bitterly—(Also see on Mr 14:72.)
Lu 22:63-71. Jesus Condemned
to Die and Shamefully Entreated.
(See on Mr 14:53-63; Joh 18:19, &c.; and Lu