The Calamities Which Precede Messiah's Advent.
His Kingdom, Conquest of Jacob's Foes, and Blessing upon His
1. gather thyself in troops—that is,
thou shalt do so, to resist the enemy. Lest the faithful should fall
into carnal security because of the previous promises, he reminds them
of the calamities which are to precede the prosperity.
daughter of troops—Jerusalem is so
called on account of her numerous troops.
he hath laid siege—the enemy
they shall smite the judge of Israel with a rod
upon the cheek—the greatest of insults to an Oriental.
Zedekiah, the judge (or king, Am 2:3) of Israel, was loaded with insults by
the Chaldeans; so also the other princes and judges (La 3:30). Hengstenberg thinks the expression, "the judge,"
marks a time when no king of the house of David reigned. The smiting on
the cheek of other judges of Israel was a type of the same indignity
offered to Him who nevertheless is the Judge, not only of Israel, but
also of the world, and who is "from everlasting" (Mic 5:2; Isa 50:6; Mt 26:67; 27:30).
2. Beth-lehem Ephratah—(Ge 48:7), or, Beth-lehem Judah; so called to
distinguish it from Beth-lehem in Zebulun. It is a few miles southwest
of Jerusalem. Beth-lehem means "the house of bread"; Ephratah
means "fruitful": both names referring to the fertility of the
though thou be little among—though
thou be scarcely large enough to be reckoned among, &c. It was
insignificant in size and population; so that in Jos 15:21, &c., it is not enumerated among the
cities of Judah; nor in the list in Ne 11:25, &c. Under Rehoboam it became a
11:6, "He built
Beth-lehem." Mt 2:6 seems
to contradict Micah, "thou art not the least," But really he, by
an independent testimony of the Spirit, confirms the prophet, Little in
worldly importance, thou art not least (that is, far from least,
yea, the very greatest) among the thousands, of princes of
Judah, in the spiritual significance of being the birthplace of Messiah
7:42). God chooses the little
things of the world to eclipse in glory its greatest things (Jud 6:15; Joh 1:46; 1Co 1:27, 28). The low state of David's line when
Messiah was born is also implied here.
thousands—Each tribe was divided into
clans or "thousands" (each thousand containing a thousand
families: like our old English division of counties into
hundreds), which had their several heads or "princes"; hence in
Mt 2:6 it is quoted "princes,"
substantially the same as in Micah, and authoritatively explained in
Matthew. It is not so much this thousand that is preferred to the other
thousands of Judah, but the Governor or Chief Prince out of it, who is
preferred to the governors of all the other thousands. It is called a
"town" (rather in the Greek, "village"), Joh 7:42; though scarcely containing a thousand
inhabitants, it is ranked among the "thousands" or larger divisions of
the tribe, because of its being the cradle of David's line, and of the
Divine Son of David. Moses divided the people into thousands, hundreds,
fifties, and tens, with their respective "rulers" (Ex 18:25; compare 1Sa 10:19).
unto me—unto God the Father (Lu 1:32): to fulfil all the Father's will
and purpose from eternity. So the Son declares (Ps 2:7;
40:7, 8; Joh 4:34); and the
Father confirms it (Mt 3:17; 12:18, compare with Isa 42:1). God's glory is hereby made the
ultimate end of redemption.
ruler—the "Shiloh," "Prince of peace,"
"on whose shoulders the government is laid" (Ge 49:10; Isa
9:6). In 2Sa 23:3, "He that ruleth over men must be
just," the same Hebrew word is employed; Messiah alone realizes
David's ideal of a ruler. Also in Jer 30:21, "their governor shall proceed
from the midst of them"; answering closely to "out of thee shall come
forth the ruler," here (compare Isa 11:1-4).
goings forth … from
everlasting—The plain antithesis of this clause, to "come
forth out of thee" (from Beth-lehem), shows that the eternal
generation of the Son is meant. The terms convey the strongest
assertion of infinite duration of which the Hebrew language is
capable (compare Ps 90:2; Pr 8:22, 23; Joh 1:1). Messiah's generation as man coming
forth unto God to do His will on earth is from Beth-lehem; but
as Son of God, His goings forth are from everlasting. The
promise of the Redeemer at first was vaguely general (Ge 3:15). Then the Shemitic division of mankind
is declared as the quarter in which He was to be looked for (Ge 9:26,
27); then it grows clearer,
defining the race and nation whence the Deliverer should come, namely,
the seed of Abraham, the Jews (Ge 12:3); then the particular tribe, Judah
49:10); then the family, that
of David (Ps 89:19, 20); then the very town of His birth, here.
And as His coming drew nigh, the very parentage (Mt
1:1-17; Lu 1:26-35; 2:1-7);
and then all the scattered rays of prophecy concentrate in Jesus, as
their focus (Heb 1:1, 2).
3. "Therefore (because of His settled
plan) will God give up to their foes His people Israel,
she which travaileth hath brought
forth—namely, "the virgin" mother, mentioned by Micah's
contemporary, Isa 7:14.
Zion "in travail" (Mic 4:9, 10) answers to the virgin in travail
of Messiah. Israel's deliverance from her long travail-pains of sorrow
will synchronize with the appearance of the Messiah as her Redeemer
11:26) in the last days, as
the Church's spiritual deliverance synchronized with the virgin's
giving birth to Him at His first advent. The ancient Church's
travail-like waiting for Messiah is represented by the virgin's
travail. Hence, both may be meant. It cannot be
restricted to the Virgin Mary: for Israel is still "given up,"
though Messiah has been "brought forth" eighteen and a half centuries
ago. But the Church's throes are included, which are only to be ended
when Christ, having been preached for a witness to all nations, shall
at last appear as the Deliverer of Jacob, and when the times of the
Gentiles shall be fulfilled, and Israel as a nation shall be born in a
day (Isa 66:7-11; Lu 21:24; Re 12:1, 2, 4; compare Ro 8:22).
the remnant of his brethren shall return unto
the children of Israel—(Compare Mic 4:7). The remainder of the Israelites
dispersed in foreign lands shall return to join their countrymen in
Canaan. The Hebrew for "unto" is, literally, "upon," implying
superaddition to those already gathered.
4. he shall stand—that is, persevere:
implying the endurance of His kingdom [Calvin]. Rather, His sedulous care and pastoral
circumspection, as a shepherd stands erect to survey and guard
His flock on every side (Isa 61:5)
feed—that is, rule: as the
Greek word similarly in Mt 2:6, Margin, means both "feed" and
"rule" (Isa 40:11; 49:10; Eze 34:23; compare 2Sa 5:2; 7:8).
in the majesty of the name of the
Lord—possessing the majesty of all Jehovah's revealed
attributes ("name") (Isa 11:2; Php 2:6, 9; Heb
his God—God is "His God" in a
oneness of relation distinct from the sense in which God is our
they shall abide—the Israelites
("they," namely, the returning remnant and the "children of
Israel previously in Canaan) shall dwell in permanent security and
prosperity (Mic 4:4; Isa 14:30).
unto the ends of the earth—(Mic 4:1; Ps 72:8; Zec 9:10).
5. this man—in Hebrew simply
"This." The One just mentioned; He and He alone. Emphatical for Messiah
the peace—the fountainhead of peace
between God and man, between Israel and Israel's justly offended God
(Ge 49:10; Isa 9:6; Eph 2:14, 17; Col
1:20), and, as the
consequence, the fountain of "peace on earth," where heretofore all is
strife (Mic 4:3; Ho 2:18; Zec 9:10; Lu 2:14).
the Assyrian—Being Israel's most
powerful foe at that time, Assyria is made the representative of all
the foes of Israel in all ages, who shall receive their final
destruction at Messiah's appearing (Eze 38:1-23).
seven shepherds, and eight—"Seven"
expresses perfection; "seven and eight" is an idiom for a full and
sufficient number (Job 5:19; Pr 6:16; Ec 11:2).
principal men—literally, "anointed
(humble) men" (Ps 62:9),
such as the apostles were. Their anointing, or consecration and
qualification to office, was by the Holy Spirit [Calvin] (1Jo 2:20, 27). "Princes" also were anointed, and they
are mentioned as under Messiah (Isa 32:1). English Version therefore gives
the probable sense.
6. waste—literally, "eat up": following
up the metaphor of "shepherds" (compare Nu 22:4; Jer 6:3).
land of Nimrod—Babylon (Mic 4:10; Ge
10:10); or, including Assyria
also, to which he extended his borders (Ge 10:11).
in the entrances—the passes into
Assyria (2Ki 3:21).
The Margin and Jerome, misled by
a needless attention to the parallelism, "with the sword," translate,
"with her own naked swords"; as in Ps 55:21 the Hebrew is translated. But "in
the entrances" of Assyria, answers to, "within our borders." As the
Assyrians invade our borders, so shall their own borders
or "entrances" be invaded.
he … he—Messiah shall
deliver us, when the Assyrian shall come.
7. remnant of Jacob—already mentioned in
Mic 5:3. It in comparative smallness
stands in antithesis to the "many people." Though Israel be but a
remnant amidst many nations after her restoration, yet she shall
exercise the same blessed influence in quickening them spiritually that
the small imperceptible dew exercises in refreshing the grass (De
32:2; Ps 72:6; 110:3). The
influence of the Jews restored from Babylon in making many Gentile
proselytes is an earnest of a larger similar effect hereafter (Isa
66:19; Zec 8:13).
from the Lord—Israel's restoration and
the consequent conversion of the Gentiles are solely of grace.
tarrieth not for man—entirely God's
work, as independent of human contrivance as the dew and rains that
fertilize the soil.
8. as a lion—In Mic 5:7 Israel's benignant influence on the
nations is described; but here her vengeance on the godless hosts who
assail her (Isa 66:15, 16, 19,
24; Zec 12:3, 6, 8, 9; 14:17, 18). Judah will be "as as lion," not in
respect to its cruelty, but in its power of striking terror into all
opponents. Under the Maccabees, the Jews acquired Idumea, Samaria, and
parts of the territory of Ammon and Moab [Grotius]. But this was only the earnest of their
future glory on their coming restoration.
9. Thine hand shall be lifted up—In
26:11 it is Jehovah's
hand that is lifted up; here Israel's as Mic 5:8 implies, just as "Zion" is addressed and
directed to "beat in pieces many people" (Mic 4:13; compare Isa 54:15, 17). For Israel's foes are Jehovah's foes.
When her hand is said to be lifted up, it is Jehovah's hand that
strikes the foe by her (compare Ex 13:9, with Ex 14:8).
10. cut off thy horses …
chariots—namely, those used for the purposes of war. Israel
had been forbidden the use of cavalry, or to go to Egypt for horses
17:16), lest they should
trust in worldly forces, rather than in God (Ps 20:7). Solomon had disregarded this command
10:26, 28). Hereafter, saith
God, I will remove these impediments to the free course of My grace:
horses, chariots, &c., on which ye trust. The Church will never be
safe, till she is stripped of all creature trusts, and rests on Jehovah
alone [Calvin]. The universal peace
given by God shall cause warlike instruments to be needless. He will
cut them off from Israel (Zec 9:10); as she will cut them off from Babylon,
the representative of the nations (Jer 50:37; 51:21).
11. cut off … cities …
strongholds—such as are fortified for war. In that time of
peace, men shall live in unwalled villages (Eze 38:11; compare Jer 23:6; 49:31; Zec
12. witchcrafts out of thine hand—that
is, which thou now usest.
13. graven images … cut
off—(Compare Isa 2:8, 18-21; 30:22; Zec
14. groves … cities—The "groves"
are the idolatrous symbol of Astarte (De 16:21; 2Ki 21:7). "Cities" being parallel to "groves,"
must mean cities in or near which such idolatrous groves existed.
Compare "city of the house of Baal" (2Ki 10:25), that is, a portion of the city sacred
15. vengeance … such as they have not
heard—or, as the Hebrew order favors, "the
nations that have not hearkened to My warnings." So the
Septuagint (Ps 149:7).