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Systematic Theology - Volume I
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CARD.

The Messrs. Charles Scribner and Co., of New York, have made an arrangement with the Messrs. Thomas Nelson and Sons, of Edinburgh, Scotland, for the publication of this work in Great Britain. This has been done with the cordial approbation of the author, who feels under obligation to the Messrs. Nelson for the liberal terms on which they have undertaken the publication. The author also desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to his accomplished young friend, Mr. Caspar René Gregory, licentiate of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, for his assistance in carrying the work through the press.

PRINCETON, June 2, 1871.

CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER I.
ON METHOD.
page
§ 1. Theology a Science 1
§ 2. Theological Method 3
§ 3. The Speculative Method 4
§ 4. The Mystical Method 6
§ 5. The Inductive Method 9
 

Theologian to be governed by same Rules as a Man of Science

11
§ 6. The Scriptures contain all the Facts of Theology 15
CHAPTER II.
THEOLOGY.
§ 1. Its Nature 18

Definitions of Theology

19

Natural Theology

21
§ 2. Facts of Nature reveal God 22
 

Scriptural Argument for Natural Theology

24
§ 3. Insufficiency of Natural Theology 25
§ 4. Christian Theology 32
 

Theology Proper, Anthropology, Soteriology, Eschatology, Ecclesiology

32
CHAPTER III.
RATIONALISM.
§ 1. Meaning and Usage of the word 34
§ 2. Deistical Rationalism 35
§ 3. Second Form of Rationalism.—Its Nature, Refutation, History 39
§ 4. Dogmatism 44
§ 5. Proper Office of Reason in Matters of Religion 49
 

Reason necessary for the Reception of a Revelation.—Difference between Knowing and Understanding.—Reason must judge of the Credibility of a Revelation.—The Impossible cannot be believed.—Reason must judge of the Evidences of a Revelation

53
§ 6. Relation of Philosophy and Revelation 55
§ 7. Office of the Senses in Matters of Faith 59
CHAPTER IV.
MYSTICISM.
§ 1. Meaning of the Word 61

Philosophical Use of the Word

61

Mysticism as known in Church History

66
§ 2. Mysticism in the Early Church 69

Montanism.—The so-called Dionysius.—New Platonism

71
§ 3. Mysticism during the Middle Ages 73

General Characteristics of that Period.—Different Classes of Mediæval Theologians.—Pantheistical Tendencies of Mysticism.—Evangelical Mystics

79
§ 4. Mysticism at and after the Reformation 79

Effect of the Reformation on the Popular Mind.—Mystics among the Reformers.—Schwenkfeld

82
§ 5. Quietism 84

General Character.—Leaders of the Movement.—Madame Guyon, Archbishop Fénélon

87
§ 6. The Quakers or Friends 88

Their Origin and Early History.—Their Doctrines.—The Doctrines of the Orthodox Friends.—Heterodox Friends.—Barclay's Views

93
§ 7. Objections to the Mystical Theory 97

It has no Foundation in Scripture.—It is contrary to Facts of Experience.—Productive of Evil

103
CHAPTER V.
ROMAN CATHOLIC DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE RULE OF FAITH
§ 1. Statement of the Doctrine 104
§ 2. Roman Catholic Doctrine concerning the Scriptures 104

Incompleteness of the Scriptures.—Obscurity of the Scriptures.—Latin Vulgate

107
§ 3. Tradition 108

Tridentine Doctrine

109
§ 4. The Office of the Church as a Teacher 1ll

The Organs of the Church in Teaching.—The Gallican Theory.—The Transmontane

112
§ 5. Examination of the Romish Doctrine 113
§ 6. Examination of the Doctrine of the Church of Rome on Tradition 113

Difference between Tradition and the Analogy of Faith.—Common Consent.—Tradition and Development.—The State of the Question.—Arguments against the Doctrine of Tradition

121
§ 7. Office of the Church as a Teacher 129

Romish Doctrine on the Subject.—Romish Definition of the Church and its Foundation.—Romish Doctrine of Infallibility founded on a Wrong Theory of the Church.—The Doctrine of Infallibility Founded on the False Assumption of the Perpetuity of the Apostleship.—Modern Prelates not Apostles.—Infallibility founded on a False Interpretation of the Promise of Christ.—It is contradicted by Facts.—Recognition of an Infallible Church incompatible with either Religious or Civil Liberty

149
CHAPTER VI.
THE PROTESTANT RULE OF FAITH.
§ 1. The Statement of the Doctrine 151

The Canon

152
§ 2. The Scriptures given by Inspiration of God 153

The Nature of Inspiration.—Inspiration Supernatural.—Distinction between Revelation and Inspiration.—Inspired Men the Organs of God.—Proof of the Doctrine.—Argument from the Signification and Use of the Word Inspiration.— From the Meaning of the Word Prophet. From the Declarations of Scripture.—Inspiration extends equally to all Parts of Scripture.—Extends to the Words as well as to the Thoughts.—Plenary Inspiration.—Objections considered

168
§ 3. Adverse Theories 172

Rationalistic Doctrine.—Schleiermacher's Theory.—Objections to that Theory.—Gracious Inspiration.—Partial Inspiration

181
§ 4. Completeness of Scripture 182
§ 5. Perspicuity of Scripture.—Right of Private Judgment 188
§ 6. Rules of Interpretation 187
PART I.
THEOLOGY PROPER.
CHAPTER I.
ORIGIN OF THE IDEA OF GOD.
§ 1. Knowledge of God as Innate 191
 

What is Meant by Innate Knowledge.—Proof that the Knowledge of God is Innate

194
§ 2. The Knowledge of God is not due to a Process of Reasoning 199
§ 3. The Knowledge of God is not due exclusively to Tradition 201
§ 4. Can the Existence of God be proved? 202
CHAPTER II.
THEISM.
§ 1. Ontological Argument.—As presented by Anselm.—By Des Cartes 204
 

—By Dr. Samuel Clarke.—By Cousin

206
§ 2. Cosmological Argument 207
 

Principle of Sufficient Cause.—Nature of Causation.—Intuitive Conviction of the Necessity of a Cause for every Effect.—The World is an Effect.—Hume's Objection to the Cosmological Argument

211
§ 3. Teleological Argument 215
 

Its Nature.—Evidences of Design in the World

217
§ 4. Objections to the Teleological Argument 227
 

Denial of Final Causes.—Objections of Hume and Kant

228
§ 5. The Moral or Anthropological Argument 233
 

Nature of the Argument.—Argument from the Existence of the Mind.—From the Nature of the Soul.—From the Moral Nature of Man

237
CHAPTER III.
ANTI—THEISTIC THEORIES.
§ 1. What is Meant by Anti-Theism.—Atheism 241
§ 2. Polytheism 243
§ 3. Hylozoism 245
§ 4. Materialism 246

Doctrine of Epicurus.—Materialism in England during the Eighteenth Century.— Locke.—Hartley.—Priestley.—Materialism in France during the Eighteenth Century.—Positivism

254

Scientific Materialism.—Leading Principles

262

Correlation of Physical and Vital Forces

264

Correlation of Physical and Mental Forces

271

Arguments against Materialism.—1. Materialism Contradicts the Facts of Consciousness

276

2. Contradicts the Truths of Reason

280

3. Inconsistent with the Facts of Experience

282

4. Materialism Atheistic

284

5. The Materialistic Argument from Analogy invalid

285

Direct Argument against the Theory of the Correlation of Physical, Vital, and Mental Forces

291
§ 5. Pantheism.—Its three Principal Forms 299

General Principles of the System

300

History of Pantheism

309

Brahminical Pantheism

309

Original Religion of the Hindoos Pantheistic.—Relation of the Hindoo Pantheism to Polytheism.—Its Effect upon Religion

313

Its Effect upon Social Life

315

Grecian Pantheism.—Ionic School.—Eleatic School

319

Stoics.—Plato's Doctrine

322

Aristotle

326

Mediæval Pantheism

328

Neo-Platonists.—John Scotus Erigena.—Modern Pantheism

330
CHAPTER IV.
KNOWLEDGE OF GOD.
§ 1. Can God be known? 335

State of the Question.—God Inconceivable.—God Incomprehensible.—Our Knowledge of God partial

337

How do we form the idea of God?—Proof that this Method is trustworthy

339
§ 2. God cannot be fully known 345

Sir William Hamilton's Argument against the Transcendentalists

346
§ 3. Sir William Hamilton's Doctrine 349

God an Object of Faith but not of Knowledge.—Different Kinds of Ignorance.—Proof that Sir William Hamilton denies that we can know God.—Arguments Against his Doctrine.—The Unthinkable or Impossible cannot be an object of Faith

352

Knowledge essential to Faith.—Our Knowledge not regulative

355

General Objections to Hamilton's Theory

359

Founded on a Wrong Definition of the Absolute and Infinite; on a Wrong Definition of knowledge.—Necessity of a Supernatural Revelation

364
CHAPTER V.
THE NATURE AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.
§ 1. Definitions of God 366
§ 2. Divine Attributes 368

Relation of the Attributes to the Essence of God.—The Divine Attributes do not differ merely in our Conceptions

371

The Divine Attributes cannot be resolved into mere Causality.—They differ virtualiter

373
§ 3. Classification of the Divine Attributes 374
§ 4. Spirituality of God 376

Consequences of admitting God to be a Spirit.

379
§ 5. Infinity 380

The Idea of Infinity not merely negative.—The Infinite is not the All.—Infinitude of God in relation to Space

383
§ 6. Eternity 386

Scriptural Doctrine.—Philosophical View.—Modern Philosophical Views

389
§ 7. Immutability 390

Philosophical Statement.—The Absolute Attributes of God not inconsistent with Personality

391
§ 8. Knowledge 393

Its Nature.—Possibility of Knowledge in God precluded by the Pantheistic Theory.—Knowledge and Power are not to be confounded.—The Doctrine of the Scriptures on the Subject.—The Objects of the Divine Knowledge.—The Actual and the Possible.—Scientia Media.—Origin of the Distinction

399

The Objections urged by Augustinians.—Foreknowledge

400
The Wisdom of God 401
§ 9. The Will of God 402

Meaning of the Term.—Freedom of the Divine Will.—Decretive and Preceptive Will.—Antecedent and Consequent Will.—Absolute and Conditional Will.—The Will of God as the Ground of Moral Obligation

405
§ 10. The Power of God 406

Origin of the Idea of Power.—Omnipotence.—Negation of Power.—Absolute Power. —Potentia Absoluta and Potentia Ordinata.—Will and Power not to be confounded

410
§ 11. Holiness of God 413

Grounds on which Moral Attributes are denied to God

414
§ 12. Justice 416

Meaning of the Word.—Justice in its relation to Sin.—Reformation of the Offender not the Primary Object of Punishment.—The Prevention of Crime not the Primary Object of Punishment.—Proof of the Scriptural Doctrine.— Philosophical Views of the Nature of Justice

424
§ 13. The Goodness of God 427

The Scriptural Doctrine.—Benevolence.—Love.—The Existence of Evil.—Theories which involve the Denial of Sin.—Sin regarded as the Necessary Means of the Greatest Good.—The Doctrine that God cannot prevent Sin in a Moral System.—Scriptural Doctrine as to the Origin of Evil

435
§ 14. The Truth of God 436
§ 15. Sovereignty of God 439
CHAPTER VI.
THE TRINITY.
§ 1. Preliminary Remarks 442
§ 2. Biblical Form of the Doctrine 443

What that Form is.—Scriptural Proof of the Doctrine.—Progressive Character of Divine Revelation.—Formula of Baptism.—Apostolic Benediction

448
§ 3. The Transition Period 448

Necessity for a more Definite Statement of the Doctrine.—Conflict with Error.—Gnostics.—Platonizers.—Origen's Doctrine.—Sabellianism.—Arianism

452
§ 4. The Church Doctrine as presented by the Council of Nice 458

Objects for which that Council was convened.—Difference of Opinion among the Members of the Council.—Semi-Arians.—Orthodox.—Council of Constantinople.—The Athanasian Creed

457
§ 5. Points decided by the Councils of Nice and Constantinople 459

1. As against Sabellianism.—2. As against the Arians and the Semi-Arians.—3. The Mutual Relations of the Persons of the Trinity

466
§ 6. Examination of the Nicene Doctrine 462

Subordination.—Eternal Generation.—Eternal Sonship

471

Objections urged against the Doctrine of Eternal Sonship

474

Relation of the Spirit to the other Persons of the Trinity

477
§ 7. Philosophical Forms of the Doctrine of the Trinity 478
CHAPTER VII.
THE DIVINITY OF CHRIST.
§ 1. Testimony of the Old Testament 483

Protevangelium.—Jehovah and the Angel Jehovah.—Evidence contained—1. In the Book of Genesis; 2. In the other Historical Books of the Old Testament; 3. The Book of Psalms.—4. The Prophetical Books

492
§ 2.

The General Characteristics of the New Testament Teaching concerning Christ

495

1. The Sense in which Christ is called Lord

495

2. Christ presented as the Object of our Religious Affections

497

3. The Relations which Christ hears to his People and to the World.—his Authority as a Teacher.—His Control over all Creatures

501

4. The Nature of his Promises

502

5. His Control over Nature

503
§ 3.

Particular Passages in the New Testament which teach the Divinity of Christ

504

1. The writings of St. John.—John i. 14.—Other Passages in St. John's Gospel.—Our Lord's Last Discourse.—The Epistles of St. John.—The Apocalypse

511

2. The Epistles of St. Paul.—The Epistle to the Romans.—Corinthians.—Galatians.—Ephesians.—Philippians.—Colossians.—Pastoral Epistles of St. Paul.—The Epistle to the Hebrews.—Other Sacred Writers of the New Testament

520
CHAPTER VIII.
THE HOLY SPIRIT.
§ 1. His Nature 522

His Personality.—Proof of his Personality.—Divinity of the Holy Spirit

527
§ 2.

Office of the Holy Spirit—1. In Nature; 2. In the Work of Redemption.—The Revealer of all Divine Truth.—Applies to Men the Benefits of the Redemption of Christ

532
§ 3. History of the Doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit 532
CHAPTER IX.
THE DECREES OF GOD.
§ 1. The Nature of the Divine Decrees 535

The Glory of God the Final Cause of his Decrees.—Decrees reducible to One Purpose.—The Decrees of God are Immutable.—They are Free.—They are certainly Efficacious.—They relate to all Events.—Free Acts are foreordained

543
§ 2. Objections to the Doctrine of Divine Decrees 545

1. Foreordination inconsistent with Free Agency.—2. Foreordination of Sin inconsistent with Holiness.—3. The Doctrine of Decrees destroys all Motives to Exertion.—4. It is Fatalism

548
CHAPTER X.
CREATION.
§ 1. Different Theories concerning the Origin of the Universe 550

1. The Purely Physical Theory.—2. The Theories which assume Intelligence in Nature itself.—3. Scriptural Doctrine

553
§ 2. Mediate and Immediate Creation 555
§ 3. Proof of the Doctrine of a Creation ex nihilo 558
§ 4. Objections to the Doctrine of a Creation ex nihilo 562
§ 5. Design of the Creation 565

Scriptural Doctrine as to the Design of the Creation

567
§ 6. The Mosaic Account of the Creation 568

Objections to the Mosaic Account of the Creation—Geology and the Bible

570
CHAPTER XI.
PROVIDENCE.
§ 1. Preservation 575

The Nature of Preservation.—Preservation is not a Continued Creation.—Objections to the Doctrine of a Continuous Creation.—Scriptural Doctrine on the Subject

581
§ 2. Government 581

Statement of the Doctrine.—Proof of the Doctrine.

1. The Evidence of the Operation of Mind everywhere

583

2. From our Religious Nature

584

3. From Predictions and Promises

585

4. From Experience

586

The Scriptural Doctrine

586

The Bible teaches—1. God's Providence over Nature; 2. Over the Animal World; 3. Over Nations; 4. Over Individuals, over the Free Acts of Men; 5. God's Providence in Relation to Sin

589
§ 3. Different Theories of the Divine Government 591

1. The Deistical Theory of God's Relation to the World

591

2. The Theory of Entire Dependence

592

3. The Doctrine that there is no Efficiency except in Mind

595

4. The Theory of Preestablished Harmony

597

5. The Doctrine of Concursus

598

Remarks on the Doctrine of Concursus

603
§ 4. The Principles involved in the Scriptural Doctrine of Providence 605

The Providence of God over the Material Universe.—1. The External World has a real Objective Existence.—2. Matter is active.—The Laws of Nature.—The Uniformity of the Laws of Nature consistent with the Doctrine of Providence

609

God's Providence in Relation to Vital Processes

610

The Providence of God over Rational Creatures

613

Distinction between the Providential Efficiency of God and the Influences of the Holy Spirit

614
CHAPTER XII.
MIRACLES.
§ 1. Usage of the Word 617

Definition of a Miracle.—Objections to this Definition

618

Answer to the above Objections

620

The Doctrine of a Higher Law

624

Objections to the Doctrine of a Higher Law

629
§ 2. Possibility of Miracles 626
§ 3. Can a Miracle be known as such? 629

Lying Wonders.—Insufficiency of Human Testimony

633
§ 4. The Value of Miracles as a Proof of Divine Revelation 635
CHAPTER XIII.
ANGELS.
§ 1. Their Nature 637
§ 2. Their State 639
§ 3. Their Employments 639
§ 4. Evil Angels 643

Power and Agency of Evil Spirits.—Demoniacal Possessions

646
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